Apsara Kandanearatchi

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The devastating effects of HIV infection have been documented for the last 2 decades. Since the 1980s over 60 million people have been infected and at present 40 million people globally are living with HIV. HIV infects the central nervous system (CNS) early in the disease process. Indeed, numerous studies document the presence of HIV within the(More)
Although intrinsic tumours of the brain seldom metastasize to distant sites, their diffuse, infiltrative-invasive growth within the brain generally precludes successful surgical and adjuvant therapy. Hence, attention has now focused on novel therapeutic approaches to combat brain tumours that include the use of anti-invasive and anti-proliferative agents.(More)
Schizophrenia is associated with a number of pathological changes, including alterations in levels of specific proteins. Calprotectin is a novel 36 kDa calcium-binding protein of the S100 family and appears to be a nonspecific marker of inflammation. Calprotectin has not previously been investigated in brain tissue. Samples of post-mortem brain tissue from(More)
The in vitro invasive behaviour of six meningioma cell lines of various histological sub-type and grade was assessed using Boyden chemotaxis chambers ('Transwell' units) precoated with various extracellular matrix proteins. The cell lines included a benign meningothelial (IPGS), two benign transitional (IPCBR and IPGC), one atypical (IPIH) and two malignant(More)
BACKGROUND Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid in HIV- associated dementia; in addition, therapeutic GM-CSF elevates plasma viral load. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of GM-CSF on viral replication and the potential ameliorative effect of antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN A primary human brain(More)
The cellular basis of HIV associated dementia has been correlated with microglial activation and neuronal dysfunction in symptomatic HIV-1 disease. As a cellular model of HIV-1 infection of brain tissue in vitro, we established a stationary human brain aggregate (SHBA) system to compare infection of HIV-1 SF162 (R5 virus) to that of IIIB (X4 virus).(More)
This brief review will first consider HIV associated neurocognitive disorder followed by the current understanding of its neuropathogenesis. Against this background the role of the kynurenine pathway will be detailed. Evidence both direct and indirect will be discussed for involvement of the kynurenine pathway at each step in the neuropathogenesis of HIV(More)
In the rodent forebrain GABAergic neurons are generated from progenitor cells that express the transcription factors Dlx1 and Dlx2. The Rap-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, MR-GEF, is turned on by many of these developing GABAergic neurons. Expression of both Dlx1/2 and MR-GEF is retained in both adult mouse and human forebrain where, in human,(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the brain is associated pathologically with neuronal damage and loss. Clinically cognitive impairments can develop, which in some can be improved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), whereas in others, the infection persists despite treatment. The efficacy of antiretrovirals to treat cognitive(More)
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