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The permeability of isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles to monovalent cations was studied using a stopped-flow fluorescence quenching technique that permits the measurement of ion fluxes on a millisecond time scale. Approximately 70% of the SR vesicles carry a cation conductance pathway mediating fluxes of Tl+, K+, Na+, and Li+, but not of(More)
This study focused on the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) in cartilage on the transport and binding of IGF-I within the tissue. We have developed experimental and theoretical modeling techniques to quantify and contrast the roles of diffusion, binding, fluid convection, and electrical migration on the transport of IGF-I(More)
Bovine articular cartilage discs (3 mm diameter x 400 micrometer thick) were equilibrated in buffer containing (125)I-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (4 degrees C) +/- unlabeled IGF-I or IGF-II. Competition for binding to cartilage discs by each unlabeled IGF was concentration-dependent, with ED(50) values for inhibition of (125)I-IGF-I binding of 11 and(More)
The preservation of the structure of articular cartilage depends on the availability of inhibitors of matrix-degrading enzymes. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 is thought to be an important contributor to the integrity of the matrix of articular cartilage, but the mechanisms that regulate its availability within the tissue are poorly understood.(More)
Males of most anuran species (frogs and toads) vocalize to attract mates. However, individuals of many vocal species may also adopt alternative noncalling ''satellite'' tactics. Satellite males characteristically remain in close proximity to calling conspecifics and attempt to intercept incoming females attracted to advertising males. Emerson proposed that(More)
The effects of androgens on male-typical traits suggest that variation among males in circulating levels can play a major role in sexual selection. We examined whether variation in vocal attractiveness is attributable to differences in androgen levels among Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus). We found that noncalling "satellite" males practicing an(More)
Competition among males for a limited number of females may result in the expression of condition-dependent alternative mating tactics. In such cases, decision rules mediating mating tactic expression are likely to be influenced by a male's external as well as internal environment. For example, experimental studies with anuran amphibians (frogs and toads)(More)
The social environment can alter mating tactic expression through modulatory effects on the endocrine system. In anuran amphibians (frogs and toads), males often adopt noncalling mating tactics in response to increased chorus density, but the underlying physiological factors mediating this response are poorly understood. Recent models suggest that(More)