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Alphaherpesvirus reactivation from thoracic sympathetic ganglia (TSG) and transaxonal spread to target organs cause human visceral disease. Yet alphaherpesvirus latency in TSG has not been well characterized. In this study, quantitative PCR detected varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and HSV-2 DNA in 117 fresh TSG obtained(More)
OBJECTIVE To address the incidence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in patients with biopsy-negative giant cell arteritis (GCA), we examined archived biopsy-negative temporal arteries from subjects with clinically suspected GCA for the presence of VZV antigen. METHODS Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded temporal arteries that were pathologically(More)
In varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected primary human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (BRAFs), levels of beta interferon (IFN-β,) STAT1, and STAT2 transcripts as well as STAT1 and STAT2 protein were decreased. IFN-α transcript levels were increased but not secreted IFN-α protein levels. Compared to IFN-α-treated control results, in VZV-infected(More)
OBJECTIVE Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection may trigger the inflammatory cascade that characterizes giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded GCA-positive temporal artery (TA) biopsies (50 sections/TA) including adjacent skeletal muscle and normal TAs obtained postmortem from subjects >50 years of age were examined by(More)
IMPORTANCE Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in elderly individuals. Diagnosis is confirmed by temporal artery (TA) biopsy, although biopsy results are often negative. Despite the use of corticosteroids, disease may progress. Identification of causal agents will improve outcomes. Biopsy-positive GCA is associated with TA(More)
Virological confirmation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy is provided by presence of virus in the cerebral arteries, frequently associated with inflammation. Yet, cerebral arteries from normal subjects have never been studied for VZV DNA or antigen. We analyzed 63 human cerebral arteries from 45 subjects for VZV DNA and antigen, control herpes(More)
Upon reactivation, varicella zoster virus (VZV) spreads transaxonally, infects cerebral arteries and causes ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, as well as aneurysms. The mechanism(s) of VZV-induced aneurysm formation is unknown. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which digest extracellular structural proteins in the artery wall, play a role in cerebral(More)
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