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Vinblastine and other microtubule inhibitors are important antitumor agents that cause mitotic arrest, and induce apoptosis through poorly understood mechanisms, in a wide variety of cell lines. The activating protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor is a major target of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, which is activated by microtubule(More)
The MDR1 gene encoding the multidrug pump P-glycoprotein is transcriptionally activated in response to diverse extracellular stimuli, including the tumor promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, the signal transduction pathway responsible is unknown. Downstream of protein kinase C (PKC), the effects of TPA are often(More)
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