April A. Cox

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, resulting in dopaminergic (DA) neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and damage to the extranigral spinal cord neurons. Current therapies do not prevent the disease progression. Hence, developing efficacious therapeutic strategies for treatment of PD is of(More)
G-protein coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) deficiency has been linked to early Alzheimer's disease in humans and mouse models of the disease. To determine potential roles of GRK5 in the disease pathogenesis, the GRK5 knockout mouse was evaluated at pathological and behavioral levels. We found that these mice displayed an age-dependent increase in(More)
To clarify the molecular changes of sublesional muscle in the acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI), a moderately severe injury (40 g cm) was induced in the spinal cord (T10 vertebral level) of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats (injury) and compared with sham (laminectomy only). Rats were sacrificed at 48 h (acute) post injury, and gastrocnemius muscles were(More)
A need exists for the effective treatment of individuals suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms occurring in SCI have resulted in an expansion of new therapeutic targets. This review summarizes both preclinical and clinical findings investigating the mechanisms and cognate(More)
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are in need of effective therapeutics. Estrogen (E2), as a steroid hormone, is a highly pleiotropic agent; with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neurotrophic properties, it is ideal for use in treatment of patients with SCI. Safety concerns around the use of high doses of E2 have limited clinical application,(More)
A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the brain deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ), a peptide of 36-43 amino acids that is likely a primary driver of neurodegeneration. Aβ is produced by the sequential cleavage of APP by BACE1 and γ-secretase; therefore, inhibition of BACE1 represents an attractive therapeutic target to slow or prevent Alzheimer's disease.(More)
An association between major surgery in the elderly and precipitation of Alzheimer's disease has been reported. As 100% oxygen (hyperoxia) is commonly administered after surgery, we exposed cognitively unimpaired Alzheimer's transgenic mice to hyperoxia typical of human exposure in a hospital setting. Three-hour hyperoxia treatments to young adult(More)
Enolase is a multifunctional protein, which is expressed abundantly in the cytosol. Upon stimulatory signals, enolase can traffic to cell surface and contribute to different pathologies including injury, autoimmunity, infection, inflammation, and cancer. Cell-surface expression of enolase is often detected on activated macrophages, microglia/macrophages,(More)
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