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African trypanosomes cause human sleeping sickness and livestock trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The 26-megabase genome contains 9068 predicted genes, including approximately 900 pseudogenes and approximately 1700 T. brucei-specific genes. Large(More)
Infection by human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease worldwide and displays considerable phenotypic variation. We examined diversity by completing the genome sequences for all known serotypes (n = 99). Superimposition of capsid crystal structure and optimal-energy RNA configurations established alignments and(More)
Freshwater lakes and ponds present an ecological interface between humans and a variety of host organisms. They are a habitat for the larval stage of many insects and may serve as a medium for intraspecies and interspecies transmission of viruses such as avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, freshwater bodies are already known repositories for(More)
A novel large multigene family was recently identified in the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, and corresponds to approximately 6% of the parasite diploid genome. The predicted gene products, mucin-associated surface proteins (MASPs), are characterized by highly conserved N- and C-terminal domains and a strikingly(More)
The use of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to disrupt gene expression has become a powerful method of achieving RNA interference (RNAi) in a wide variety of organisms. However, in Trypanosoma brucei this tool is restricted to transient interference, because the dsRNA is not stably maintained and its effects are diminished and eventually lost during cellular(More)
BACKGROUND The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence fiscally and technically problematic. To selectively obtain gene-enriched regions of this tick's genome, Cot filtration was performed, and Cot-filtered DNA was sequenced via 454 FLX pyrosequencing. RESULTS The sequenced Cot-filtered(More)
Transmission of arthropod-borne apicomplexan parasites that cause disease and result in death or persistent infection represents a major challenge to global human and animal health. First described in 1901 as Piroplasma equi, this re-emergent apicomplexan parasite was renamed Babesia equi and subsequently Theileria equi, reflecting an uncertain taxonomy.(More)
Members of the Argonaute protein family have been linked through a combination of genetic and biochemical studies to RNA interference (RNAi) and related phenomena. Here, we describe the characterization of the first Argonaute protein (AGO1) in Trypanosoma brucei, the earliest divergent eukaryote where RNAi has been described so far. AGO1 is predominantly(More)
BACKGROUND Most emerging health threats are of zoonotic origin. For the overwhelming majority, their causative agents are RNA viruses which include but are not limited to HIV, Influenza, SARS, Ebola, Dengue, and Hantavirus. Of increasing importance therefore is a better understanding of global viral diversity to enable better surveillance and prediction of(More)
In animals and protozoa, gene-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers degradation of homologous cellular RNAs, a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi). In vitro and in vivo dsRNA is processed by a nuclease to produce 21-25-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that guide target RNA degradation. Here we show that activation of RNAi in Trypanosoma(More)