Anya Elaine Johnson

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Altruism is a ubiquitous strategy among organisms ranging from microbes to mammals. Inclusive fitness theory indicates that altruistic strategies can be beneficial when an altruist acts to benefit organisms that share its genes. It is common for such altruistic strategies to be negatively affected by cheaters that do not act altruistically. A more subtle(More)
Within the context of evolution, an altruistic act that benefits the receiving individual at the expense of the acting individual is a puzzling phenomenon. An extreme form of al-truism can be found in colicinogenic E. coli. These suicidal altruists explode, releasing colicins that kill unrelated individuals , which are not colicin resistant. By committing(More)
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