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The Loxosceles genus spiders (the brown spiders) are encountered in all the continents, and the clinical manifestations following spider bites include skin necrosis with gravitational lesion spreading and occasional systemic manifestations, such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Brown spider venoms are complex mixtures of(More)
L-Amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are flavoenzymes that catalytically deaminate L-amino acids to corresponding α-keto acids with the concomitant production of ammonia (NH(3)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Particularly, snake venom LAAOs have been attracted much attention due to their diverse clinical and biological effects, interfering on human coagulation(More)
Snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs) are hemostatically active toxins that perturb the maintenance and regulation of both the blood coagulation cascade and fibrinolytic feedback system at specific points, and hence, are widely used as tools in pharmacological and clinical diagnosis. The crystal structure of a thrombin-like enzyme (TLE) from Bothrops(More)
Phospholipases D are the major dermonecrotic component of Loxosceles venom and catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, resulting in the formation of lipid mediators such as ceramide-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid which can induce pathological and biological responses. Phospholipases D can be classified into two classes depending on their catalytic(More)
Catalytically inactive phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) homologues play key roles in the pathogenesis induced by snake envenomation, causing extensive tissue damage via a mechanism still unknown. Although, the amino acid residues directly involved in catalysis are conserved, the substitution of Asp49 by Arg/Lys/Gln or Ser prevents the binding of the essential(More)
Envenomation by Bothrops species results, among other symptoms, in hemostatic disturbances. These changes can be ascribed to the presence of enzymes, primarily serine proteinases some of which are structurally similar to thrombin and specifically cleave fibrinogen releasing fibrinopeptides. A rapid, three-step, chromatographic procedure was developed to(More)
Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is an endogenous glucocorticoid regulated protein that modulates anti-inflammatory process and its therapeutic potential has recently been recognized in a range of systemic inflammatory disorders. The effect of the N-terminal peptide Ac2-26 of AnxA1 on the toxic activities of Bothrops moojeni crude venom (CV) and its myotoxin II (MjTX-II)(More)
Crotamine, a highly basic myotoxic polypeptide (molecular mass 4881 Da) isolated from the venom of the Brazilian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, causes skeletal muscle contraction and spasms, affects the functioning of voltage-sensitive sodium channels by inducing sodium influx and possesses antitumour activity, suggesting potential pharmaceutical(More)
Loxoscelism refers to the clinical symptoms that develop after brown spider bites. Brown spider venoms contain several phospholipase-D isoforms, which are the main toxins responsible for both the cutaneous and systemic effects of loxoscelism. Understanding of the phospholipase-D catalytic mechanism is crucial for the development of specific treatment that(More)
Snake-venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) comprise a family of haemostatically active toxins which can cause haemorrhage, coagulopathy, inhibition of platelet aggregation and inflammatory response. These effects are attributed to the proteolytic action of SVMPs on extracellular matrix components, plasma proteins and cell-surface proteins. SVMPs are classified(More)