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The effects of early-season herbivory and subsequent induced plant responses have the potential to affect the diversity of herbivorous insect communities. We investigated the seasonal development of the herbivore fauna on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) to understand the effect of early-season herbivory by different species on insect growth, natural(More)
Theory predicts that plant defensive traits are costly due to trade-offs between allocation to defense and growth and reproduction. Most previous studies of costs of plant defense focused on female fitness costs of constitutively expressed defenses. Consideration of alternative plant strategies, such as induced defenses and tolerance to herbivory, and(More)
Both an individual's genotype and environment govern its phenotype, and this phenotype may have extended consequences for species interactions and communities. We examined the importance of plant genotype and environmental factors operating at large (habitat) and small (microhabitat) spatial scales in affecting a multitrophic arthropod community on plants.(More)
Beetles in the genus Tetraopes share a long evolutionary history with milk-weeds (Asclepias spp.), feeding on roots as larvae and leaves as adults. Despite their extreme specialization on milkweed, Tetraopes require drying grass stems as oviposition sites, even though they do not consume grass. The natural history of the interaction suggests that herbivory(More)
Induced plant responses to herbivory appear to be universal, yet the degree to which they are specific to sets of herbivores is poorly understood. The generalist/specialist hypothesis predicts that generalist herbivores are more often negatively affected by host plant defenses, wheras specialists may be either unaffected by or attracted to these same(More)
Several hypotheses proposed to explain the success of introduced species focus on altered interspecific interactions. One of the most prominent, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, posits that invading species benefit compared to their native counterparts if they lose their herbivores and pathogens during the invasion process. We previously reported on a common(More)
Hypothesis: Genetic variation in plant defence structures a community of herbivores and ultimately mediates co-evolution. Organisms: Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and five natural insect herbivores (seed bug, leaf mining fly, monarch caterpillar and two beetles). Methods: Quantitative genetic field experiment over 2 years, genetic selection analyses,(More)
When the optimal phenotype differs among environments, adaptive phenotypic plasticity can evolve unless constraints impede such evolution. Costs and limits of plasticity have been proposed as important constraints on the evolution of plasticity, yet confusion exists over their distinction. We attempt to clarify these concepts by reviewing their(More)