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We recently identified from the Drosophila genome database a large family of G protein-coupled receptor genes, the Gr genes, and predicted that they encode taste receptors on the basis of their structure and specificity of expression. The expression of Gr genes in gustatory neurons has subsequently been confirmed and 56 family members have been reported.(More)
The extent of diversity among bitter-sensing neurons is a fundamental issue in the field of taste. Data are limited and conflicting as to whether bitter neurons are broadly tuned and uniform, resulting in indiscriminate avoidance of bitter stimuli, or diverse, allowing a more discerning evaluation of food sources. We provide a systematic analysis of how(More)
We have analyzed the molecular basis of sugar reception in Drosophila. We define the response spectrum, concentration dependence, and temporal dynamics of sugar-sensing neurons. Using in situ hybridization and reporter gene expression, we identify members of the Gr5a-related taste receptor subfamily that are coexpressed in sugar neurons. Neurons expressing(More)
We examine the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in the Drosophila larva through a comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of all 68 Gustatory receptors (Grs). Gr-GAL4 lines representing each Gr are examined, and 39 show expression in taste organs of the larval head, including the terminal organ (TO), the dorsal organ (DO), and the(More)
During Drosophila embryogenesis, a gradient of Nanos protein emanating from the posterior pole organizes abdominal segmentation. This gradient arises from translational regulation of nanos mRNA, which is activated in the specialized cytoplasm at the posterior pole of the embryo and repressed elsewhere. Previously, we have defined cis-acting elements in the(More)
Abdominal segmentation in the Drosophila embryo is governed by a gradient of Nanos (Nos) emanating from the posterior pole. This gradient is derived from translation of the nos mRNA that is localized in the pole plasm; in contrast, unlocalized nos mRNA is translationally repressed. Here we define the essential signals in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of(More)
Recent studies have suggested that Drosophila taste receptors are encoded by a family of G protein-coupled receptor genes comprising at least 56 members. One of these genes, Gr5a, has been shown by genetic analysis to be required by the fly for behavioral and sensory responses to a sugar, trehalose. Here, we show that Gr5a is expressed in neurons of taste(More)
There are major impediments to finding improved DEET alternatives because the receptors causing olfactory repellency are unknown, and new chemicals require exorbitant costs to determine safety for human use. Here we identify DEET-sensitive neurons in a pit-like structure in the Drosophila melanogaster antenna called the sacculus. They express a highly(More)
The fly pharyngeal sense organs lie at the transition between external and internal nutrient-sensing mechanisms. Here we investigate the function of pharyngeal sweet gustatory receptor neurons, demonstrating that they express a subset of the nine previously identified sweet receptors and respond to stimulation with a panel of sweet compounds. We show that(More)
CO(2) elicits a response from many insects, including mosquito vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, but the molecular basis of CO(2) detection is unknown in insects or other higher eukaryotes. Here we show that Gr21a and Gr63a, members of a large family of Drosophila seven-transmembrane-domain chemoreceptor genes, are coexpressed in(More)