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Automobiles are quickly becoming more complex as new sensors and support systems are being added to improve safety and comfort. The next generation of intelligent driver assistance systems will need to utilize this wide array of sensors to fully understand the driving context and situation. Effective interaction requires these systems to examine the(More)
In the interest of 24-7 long-term surveillance, a truly robust, adaptive, and fast background-foreground segmentation technique is required. This paper deals with the especially difficult but extremely common problems of moving backgrounds, shadows, highlights, and illumination changes. To produce reliable foreground extraction in the face of these(More)
Driver behavioral cues may present a rich source of information and feedback for future intelligent advanced driver-assistance systems (ADASs). With the design of a simple and robust ADAS in mind, we are interested in determining the most important driver cues for distinguishing driver intent. Eye gaze may provide a more accurate proxy than head movement(More)
Recent advances in driver behavior analysis for Active Safety have led to the ability to reliably predict certain driver intentions. Specifically, researchers have developed Advanced Driver Assistance Systems that produce an estimate of a driver's intention to change lanes, make an intersection turn, or brake, several seconds before the act itself. One(More)
In this paper, we introduce a novel laser-based wide-area heads-up windshield display which is capable of actively interfacing with a human as part of a driver assistance system. The dynamic active display (DAD) is a unique prototype interface that presents safety-critical visual icons to the driver in a manner that minimizes the deviation of his or her(More)
The dynamics of overt visual attention shifts evoke certain patterns of responses in eye and head movements. In this work, we detail novel findings regarding the interaction of eye gaze and head pose under various attention-switching conditions in complex environments and safety critical tasks such as driving. In particular, we find that sudden, bottom-up(More)
Drawing upon fundamental research in human behavior prediction, recently there has been a research focus on how to predict driver behaviors. In this paper we review the field of driver behavior and intent prediction, with a specific focus on tactical maneuvers, as opposed to operational or strategic maneuvers. The aim of a driver behavior prediction system(More)
We introduce a new approach to analyzing the attentive state of a human subject, given cameras focused on the subject and their environment. In particular, the task of analyzing the focus of attention of a human driver is of primary concern. Up to 80% of automobile crashes are related to driver inattention; thus it is important for an Intelligent Driver(More)
Future intelligent environments and systems may need to interact with humans while simultaneously analyzing events and critical situations. Assistive living, advanced driver assistance systems, and intelligent command-and-control centers are just a few of these cases where human interactions play a critical role in situation analysis. In particular, the(More)