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Ebola and Marburg filoviruses cause deadly outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever. Despite considerable efforts, no essential cellular receptors for filovirus entry have been identified. We showed previously that Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a lysosomal cholesterol transporter, is required for filovirus entry. Here, we demonstrate that NPC1 is a critical filovirus(More)
Since its discovery in the early 1960's, abscisic acid (ABA) has received considerable attention as an important phytohormone, and more recently, as a candidate medicinal in humans. In plants it has been shown to regulate important physiological processes such as response to drought stress, and dormancy. The discovery of ABA synthesis in animal cells has(More)
We recently demonstrated that Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a ubiquitous 13-pass cellular membrane protein involved in lysosomal cholesterol transport, is a critical entry receptor for filoviruses. Here we show that Niemann-Pick C1-like1 (NPC1L1), an NPC1 paralog and hepatitis C virus entry factor, lacks filovirus receptor activity. We exploited the structural(More)
Most paramyxovirus fusion proteins require coexpression of and activation by a homotypic attachment protein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), to promote membrane fusion. However, the molecular mechanism of the activation remains unknown. We previously showed that the incorporation of a monohistidylated lipid into F-virosome (Sendai viral envelope(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that covalent grafting of a single histidine residue into a twin-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon compound enhances its endosome-disrupting properties and thereby generates an excellent DNA transfection system. Significant increase in gene delivery efficiencies has thus been obtained by using endosome-disrupting multiple(More)
Protozoan parasites Leishmania donovani (family: Trypanosomatidae) cause fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and the infection relapses in apparently cured population as post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in the Indian subcontinent. In recent years co-infection of another Trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas with L. donovani during VL/PKDL in this(More)
Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a heterohexameric protein consisting of an enzymatically active A subunit, LTA, and a carrier pentameric B subunit, LTB. It is clear from the crystal structure of LTB that the N-terminal alpha1 helix lies outside the core structure. However, the function of the N-terminal alpha1 helix of(More)
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