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In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this framework to(More)
The current experiment examined whether adjusting-amount and adjusting-delay procedures provide equivalent measures of discounting. Pigeons' discounting on the two procedures was compared using a within-subject yoking technique in which the indifference point (number of pellets or time until reinforcement) obtained with one procedure determined the value of(More)
In standard treatments of probability, Pr(A|B) is defined as the ratio of Pr(A intersectionB) to Pr(B), provided that Pr(B)>0. This account of conditional probability suggests a psychological question, namely, whether estimates of Pr(A|B) arise in the mind via implicit calculation of Pr(A intersectionB)/Pr(B). We tested this hypothesis (Experiment 1) by(More)
Poor individuals often engage in behaviors, such as excessive borrowing, that reinforce the conditions of poverty. Some explanations for these behaviors focus on personality traits of the poor. Others emphasize environmental factors such as housing or financial access. We instead consider how certain behaviors stem simply from having less. We suggest that(More)
UNLABELLED The Software Environment for BIological Network Inference (SEBINI) has been created to provide an interactive environment for the deployment and evaluation of algorithms used to reconstruct the structure of biological regulatory and interaction networks. SEBINI can be used to compare and train network inference methods on artificial networks and(More)
Spencer foundations, the Exelon corporation, and the Chicago Community Trust, and visiting scholar awards to Jens Ludwig from the Russell Sage Foundation and LIEPP at Sciences Po. We are grateful to the staff of Youth Guidance and World Sport Chicago (the two non-profit organizations that implemented the intervention we study here), to Wendy Fine of Youth(More)
The fundamentals of software testing and related activities are often elusive in undergraduate curricula. A direct consequence of the lack of software testing efforts during education is the huge losses suffered by the software industry when applications are not sufficiently tested. Software practitioners have exhorted faculty members and institutions to(More)
Economic models of decision making assume that people have a stable way of thinking about value. In contrast, psychology has shown that people's preferences are often malleable and influenced by normatively irrelevant contextual features. Whereas economics derives its predictions from the assumption that people navigate a world of scarce resources, recent(More)