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Needle-free liquid jet injectors were invented >50 years ago for the delivery of proteins and vaccines. Despite their long history, needle-free liquid jet injectors are not commonly used as a result of frequent pain and bruising. We hypothesized that pain and bruising originate from the deep penetration of the jets and can potentially be addressed by(More)
Skin makes an excellent site for drug and vaccine delivery due to easy accessibility, immuno-surveillance functions, avoidance of macromolecular degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and possibility of self-administration. However, macromolecular drug delivery across the skin is primarily accomplished using hypodermic needles, which have several(More)
Amyloidogenic proteins undergo an alternative folding pathway under stressful conditions leading to formation of fibrils having cross beta-sheet structure, which is the hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. As a means of surviving against external stress, on the other hand, many microorganisms accumulate small stress molecules to prevent abnormal(More)
Transcutaneous immunization, topical application of vaccines on skin, provides several advantages over needle based immunization. However, simple topical application of vaccines does not generate sufficient immune response due to limited transport of vaccines across the stratum corneum of skin. Here we report that chemicals used in common skin products can(More)
To investigate the folding behavior of amyloidogenic proteins under extreme temperatures, the kinetics of fibrillation and accompanying secondary structure transitions of bovine insulin were studied for temperatures ranging up to 140 degrees C. The presence of extreme heat stress had traditionally been associated with irreversible denaturation of protein(More)
Certain mixtures of chemicals are known to synergistically enhance skin permeability to drugs. Here, we report on the transport enhancing properties of mixtures of an anionic surfactant, sodium lauroylsarcosinate (NLS) and a non-ionic surfactant, sorbitan monolaurate (S20) in 1:1 phosphate buffered saline (PBS):ethanol (EtOH) solvent. Effect of 44 different(More)
Many modern pharmaceutical therapies such as vaccines and macromolecular drugs benefit from transdermal delivery. Conventional transdermal drug delivery via hypodermic needles causes pain, non-compliance, and potential contamination. Alternative transdermal strategies that deliver drugs in a quick, reliable, painless, and inexpensive way are needed. Jet(More)
ATM is representative of the connection-oriented resource provisioning class of protocols. The ATM network is expected to provide end-to-end QoS guarantees to connections in the form of bounds on delays, errors and/or losses. Performance management involves measurement of QoS parameters, and application of control measures (if required) to improve the QoS(More)