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Acidification of the seas, caused by increased dissolution of CO(2) into surface water, and global warming challenge the adaptation mechanisms of marine organisms. In boreal coastal environments, temperature and pH vary greatly seasonally, but sometimes also rapidly within hours due to upwelling events. We studied if copepod zooplankton living in a(More)
The development of winter phytoplankton communities was studied in both shallow and deep areas of Lake Pääjärvi, southern Finland, during the final 2 weeks of winter ice cover. Phytoplankton was mainly composed of diatoms, cryptophytes and chrysophytes. The diatoms Aulacoseira and Rhizosolenia were always uniformly distributed with depth, initially probably(More)
Cyanobacteria blooms are a worldwide nuisance in fresh, brackish and marine waters. Changing environmental conditions due to upwelling, changed mixing conditions or climate change are likely to influence cyanobacteria growth and toxicity. In this study, the response of the toxic cyanobacterium Dolichospermum sp. to lowered pH (−0.4 units by adding CO2) and(More)
It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that(More)
Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean(More)
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