Antti Väänänen

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Activated microglial cells are found in the substantia nigra and the striatum of Parkinson's disease patients. These cells have been shown to express catechol-O-methyltransferase activity which may increase during pathological conditions. Lipopolysaccharides are potent activators of microglial cells. After paranigral lipopolysaccharide infusion to rats we(More)
Our previous studies indicate that the KDI (Lys-Asp-Ile) tripeptide of gamma1 laminin protects central neurons from mechanical trauma and excitotoxicity. At least part of the neuroprotective effect of the KDI tripeptide may be mediated by its inhibitory function on ionotropic glutamate receptors. We studied the protective effect of the KDI tripeptide(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid analgesics are effective in the treatment of chronic pain, but they have serious adverse effects such as development of tolerance and dependence. Adrenergic α(2) agonists and μ-opioid receptor agonists show synergistic potentiation and cross-tolerance in spinal analgesia, whereas α(2)-adrenergic antagonists have shown pronociceptive(More)
Protein oxidation, irreversible modification, and inactivation may play key roles in various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, we studied the effects of the potentially in vivo occurring nitric oxide-related species on two different markers of protein oxidation: protein carbonyl generation on bovine serum albumine (BSA) and loss of activity of a(More)
Nitrosation of enzyme regulatory cysteines is one of the key posttranslational modification mechanisms of enzyme function. Frequently such modifications are readily reversible; however, cysteine proteases, such as cathepsin B, have been shown to be covalently and permanently inactivated by nitroxyl (HNO), the one-electron reduction product of NO. Owing to(More)
Our earlier studies indicate that the KDI tripeptide of gamma1 laminin reverts paralysis and protects adult rat CNS from excitotoxicity of glutamate and from oxidative stress. Here we show that gamma1 laminin is selectively overexpressed in reactive astrocytes of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinal cord, with both gray and white matter astrocytes(More)
Regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals is hampered by formation of a glial scar and by proteins released from the myelin sheaths of injured neuronal pathways. Our recent data indicate that the KDI (Lys-Asp-Ile) domain of gamma1 laminin neutralizes both glial- and myelin-derived inhibitory signals and promotes survival and neurite(More)
UNLABELLED Nitroxyl anion or its conjugate acid (NO-/HNO) and nitric oxide (NO) may both have pro-oxidative and cytotoxic properties. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme has been shown to convert reversibly HNO to NO. Mutations found in the SOD enzyme in some familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients affect redox properties of the SOD enzyme in a(More)
We previously showed that the one-electron reduction product of nitric oxide (NO), nitroxyl (HNO), irreversibly inhibits the proteolytic activity of the model cysteine protease papain. This result led us to investigate the differential effects of the nitrogen oxides, such as nitroxyl (HNO), NO, and in situ-generated peroxynitrite on cysteine(More)
Laminins are extracellular matrix glycoproteins with multiple functions in the central nervous system, including maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. Because ischemic brain damage results in rapid degradation of extracellular matrix, we used immunocytochemistry on rat central nervous system after permanent focal ischemia to identify laminins involved in(More)