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BACKGROUND Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by granulosa cells of ovarian early developing follicles and its serum levels have been shown to correlate with small antral follicle number. Since the pronounced androgen secretion from follicles/stroma in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains until late reproductive age, and since AMH(More)
Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study(More)
Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4, also known as WAP four-disulphide core domain protein 2) is a new promising biomarker for ovarian cancer but its specificity against ovarian endometriotic cysts is only superficially known. We, thus, analysed serum HE4 concentrations together with a tumour marker CA125 in serum samples of women diagnosed with(More)
Aging is associated with structural and functional alterations in all organs of the human body. The aging of gonads represents in this respect a special case, because these organs are not functional for the whole lifespan of an individual and their normal function is not indispensable for functions of the rest of the body. Ovarian function lasts for the(More)
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease where endometrium-like tissue grows outside uterine cavity. Endometriotic cell proliferation is stimulated by estrogens acting predominantly via their nuclear receptors. Estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2) are ligand activated transcription factors whose activation is dependent on the cell-specific(More)
Effects of 2-week treatments with increasing doses of testosterone (T) on gonadotropin gene expression and secretion were studied in intact and acutely castrated male rats. T was administered in silastic capsules with lengths of 2, 4, 8 or 16 cm, and control animals received empty capsules (eight per treatment). The treatments increased serum T up to 3-fold(More)
Stage-specific binding of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was measured in rat seminiferous tubules. The binding in single-point assays was over 3-fold higher (P less than 0.05) in stages XIII to I than in stages VI to VII of the epithelial cycle. No difference was found between the equilibrium association constants (Ka) of FSH binding in stages XIV to IV(More)
BACKGROUND The combination of etonogestrel implants with injectable testosterone decanoate was investigated as a potential male contraceptive. METHODS One hundred and thirty subjects were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, all receiving two etonogestrel rods (204 mg etonogestrel) and 400 mg testosterone decanoate either every 4 weeks (group I, n(More)
Interest has arisen during the last 10 years as to the possible connection between the age-related decline in androgen production and symptoms of ageing in men. A new ageing-related syndrome with several descriptive names, such as andropause, male menopause, Partial Androgen Deficiency of the Ageing Male (PADAM) and Late-Onset Hypogonadism (LOH), has been(More)