Antti Koskela

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Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in(More)
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a metabolite of 17β-estradiol (E2), exerts bone sparing effects in animal models. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism is back conversion of 2ME2 to E2, which subsequently acts via estrogen receptor (ER)α. We measured serum E2 levels in orchidectomized wild-type (WT) mice treated with 2ME2 66.6 μg/d or placebo. In(More)
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling leads to cellular responses in several tissues and in addition to nuclear ERα-mediated effects, membrane ERα (mERα) signaling may be of importance. To elucidate the significance, in vivo, of mERα signaling in multiple estrogen-responsive tissues, we have used female mice lacking the ability to localize ERα to the membrane(More)
The bone-sparing effect of estrogens is mediated primarily via estrogen receptor (ER)α, which stimulates gene transcription through activation function (AF)-1 and AF-2. The role of ERαAF-1 for the estradiol (E2) effects is tissue specific. The selective ER modulators (SERMs) raloxifene (Ral), lasofoxifene (Las), and bazedoxifene (Bza) can be used to treat(More)
The action of the matrix exponential and related ϕ functions on vectors plays an important role in the application of exponential integrators to ordinary differential equations. For the efficient evaluation of linear combinations of such actions we consider a new Krylov subspace algorithm. By employing Cauchy's integral formula an error representation of(More)
In this paper we give first results for the approximation of e A b, i.e. the matrix exponential times a vector, using the incomplete orthogonalization method. The benefits compared to the Arnoldi iteration are clear: shorter orthogonalization lengths make the algorithm faster and a large memory saving is also possible. For the case of three term(More)
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