Antti Koskela

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Loading increases bone mass and strength in a site-specific manner; however, possible effects of loading on bone matrix composition have not been evaluated. Site-specific structural and material properties of mouse bone were analyzed on the macro- and micro/molecular scale in the presence and absence of axial loading. The response of bone to load is(More)
Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in(More)
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling leads to cellular responses in several tissues and in addition to nuclear ERα-mediated effects, membrane ERα (mERα) signaling may be of importance. To elucidate the significance, in vivo, of mERα signaling in multiple estrogen-responsive tissues, we have used female mice lacking the ability to localize ERα to the membrane(More)
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a metabolite of 17β-estradiol (E2), exerts bone sparing effects in animal models. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism is back conversion of 2ME2 to E2, which subsequently acts via estrogen receptor (ER)α. We measured serum E2 levels in orchidectomized wild-type (WT) mice treated with 2ME2 66.6 μg/d or placebo. In(More)
The bone-sparing effect of estrogens is mediated primarily via estrogen receptor (ER)α, which stimulates gene transcription through activation function (AF)-1 and AF-2. The role of ERαAF-1 for the estradiol (E2) effects is tissue specific. The selective ER modulators (SERMs) raloxifene (Ral), lasofoxifene (Las), and bazedoxifene (Bza) can be used to treat(More)
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