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Part of Special Issue " Atmospheric studies by optical methods " Abstract. The upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, or ionospheric D region, is an atmospheric layer which is difficult to access experimentally. A useful method that also has a large potential for further studies is artificial heating of electrons by means of powerful radio transmitters.(More)
The ionospheric electron gas can be heated arti®cially by a powerful radio wave. According to our modeling, the maximum e€ect of this heating occurs in the D-region where the electron temperature can increase by a factor of ten. Ionospheric plasma parameters such as N e ; T e and T i are measured by EISCAT incoherent scatter radar on a routine basis.(More)
—The Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) is a dual array of omnidirectional VHF radio antennas located near Kilpisjärvi, Finland. It is operated by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory. It makes extensive use of the proven LOFAR antenna and digital signal-processing hardware, and can act as a stand-alone passive receiver, as a receiver(More)
Understanding the altitude distribution of particle precipitation forcing is vital for the assessment of its atmospheric and climate impacts. However, the proportion of electron and proton forcing around the mesopause region during solar proton events is not always clear due to uncertainties in satellite-based flux observations. Here we use electron(More)
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