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The well-known correlation between the hydrophobicity of narcotic chemicals and the exposure concentration needed to produce an effect indicates that a lipid phase in the aquatic organism is the most likely target. The molar concentration in aquatic organisms at death is found to be approximately constant for different narcotic chemicals, varying from 2 to(More)
This review evaluates the presumed contribution of acetaldehyde to tobacco smoke addiction. In rodents, acetaldehyde induces reinforcing effects, and acts in concert with nicotine. Harman and salsolinol, condensation products of acetaldehyde and biogenic amines, may be responsible for the observed reinforcing effect of acetaldehyde. Harman and salsolinol(More)
Preventing initiation of tobacco product use, promoting cessation of tobacco use, and protecting the public from exposure to second hand smoke are recognised by the World Health organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and by the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) as the most effective approaches to reducing(More)
Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is a widely used brominated flame retardant, considered to be of low toxicity. However, previous toxicity studies applied exposure methods with low bioavailability of this compound, and the actual hazard of decaBDE for humans, which are environmentally exposed to decaBDE, may thus be underestimated in current risk(More)
Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added(More)
The purpose of this study is to describe the interrelationship between nitric oxide (NO) and nicotine in cigarette smoking addiction, in view of the underlying hypothesis that NO contributes to smoking (nicotine) addiction, and to suggest the ways to improve prevention as well as cessation strategies. A literature search of Medline using the keywords(More)
The authors used a longitudinal observational design, with repeated measures, to study the association between traffic-related air pollutants (i.e., nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and Black Smoke) and respiratory symptoms. Subjects (N = 82) attended an elementary school in either Utrecht (i.e., urban children) or Bilthoven (i.e., suburban(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been associated with increased rates of tobacco usage as well as with dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. At the same time tobacco also affects the HPA axis. This paper examines the relationships between PTSD, posttraumatic MDD, smoking and levels of(More)
In preparing a decision about the legal status of khat in the Netherlands, the Dutch Minister of Health requested CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of khat in the Netherlands. The present paper is a redraft of a report which formed the scientific basis of the risk evaluation procedure (October 2007).(More)