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The cytochrome bc1 is one of the three major respiratory enzyme complexes residing in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Cytochrome bc1 transfers electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c and uses the energy thus released to form an electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane. Our X-ray crystal structures of the complex from chicken, cow and rabbit in(More)
The effects of herbivores on plant production and fitness may not relate directly to the quantity of biomass removed because folivory may alter photosynthetic rates at a considerable distance from the damaged tissue [Welter, S. C. (1989) in Insect-Plant Interactions, ed. Bernays, E. A. (CRC, Boca Raton), pp. 135-151.]. An impediment to understanding the(More)
The effect of different feeding behaviours of 1st and 4th instar Trichoplusia ni on photosynthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana var. Columbia was characterized using spatially resolved measurements of fluorescence and leaf temperature, as well as leaf gas exchange,. First instars made small holes with a large perimeter-to-area ratio and avoided veins, while 4th(More)
The cytochrome bc complexes represent a phylogenetically diverse group of complexes of electron-transferring membrane proteins, most familiarly represented by the mitochondrial and bacterial bc1 complexes and the chloroplast and cyanobacterial b6f complex. All these complexes couple electron transfer to proton translocation across a closed lipid bilayer(More)
Crystallographic structures of the mitochondrial ubiquinol/cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cytochrome bc(1) complex) suggest that the mechanism of quinol oxidation by the bc(1) complex involves a substantial movement of the soluble head of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) between reaction domains in cytochrome b and cytochrome c(1) subunits. In this paper(More)
Two forms of the equation for expression of the rate constant for electron transfer through a Marcus-type treatment are discussed. In the first (exergonic) form, the Arrhenius exponential term was replaced by its classical Marcus term; in the second (endergonic) form, the forward rate constant was replaced by the reverse rate constant (the forward rate(More)
Arginine257 (R257), in the de-helix that caps the Q(B) site of the D1 protein, has been shown by mutational studies to play a key role in the sensitivity of Photosystem II (PS II) to bicarbonate-reversible binding of the formate anion. In this article, the role of this residue has been further investigated through D1 mutations (R257E, R257Q, and R257K) in(More)
Formate is known to cause significant inhibition in the electron and proton transfers in photosystem II (PSII); this inhibition is uniquely reversed by bicarbonate. It has been suggested that bicarbonate functions by providing ligands to the non-heme iron and by facilitating protonation of the secondary plastoquinone QB. Numerous lines of evidence indicate(More)
In addition to the four chlorophylls (Chls) involved in primary charge separation, the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center polypeptides, D1 and D2, coordinate a pair of symmetry-related, peripheral accessory Chls. These Chls are axially coordinated by the D1-H118 and D2-H117 residues and are in close association with the proximal Chl antennae proteins,(More)