Antony R. Crofts

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The cytochrome bc1 is one of the three major respiratory enzyme complexes residing in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Cytochrome bc1 transfers electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c and uses the energy thus released to form an electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane. Our X-ray crystal structures of the complex from chicken, cow and rabbit in(More)
The decay of fluorescence yield following each of a series of saturating laser flashes has been used to monitor the kinetics of reoxidation of the primary acceptor of Photosystem II under conditions of varied redox potential. 1. In dark-adapted chloroplasts, a damped binary oscillation as a function of flash number was observed in the kinetics of the decay(More)
The effects of herbivores on plant production and fitness may not relate directly to the quantity of biomass removed because folivory may alter photosynthetic rates at a considerable distance from the damaged tissue [Welter, S. C. (1989) in Insect-Plant Interactions, ed. Bernays, E. A. (CRC, Boca Raton), pp. 135-151.]. An impediment to understanding the(More)
The bc1 complexes are intrinsic membrane proteins that catalyze the oxidation of ubihydroquinone and the reduction of cytochrome c in mitochondrial respiratory chains and bacterial photosynthetic and respiratory chains. The bc1 complex operates through a Q-cycle mechanism that couples electron transfer to generation of the proton gradient that drives ATP(More)
(1) The role of the ubiquinone pool in the reactions of the cyclic electron-transfer chain has been investigated by observing the effects of reduction of the ubiquinone pool on the kinetics and extent of the cytochrome and electrochromic carotenoid absorbance changes following flash illumination. (2) In the presence of antimycin, flash-induced reduction of(More)
The cytochrome bc complexes represent a phylogenetically diverse group of complexes of electron-transferring membrane proteins, most familiarly represented by the mitochondrial and bacterial bc1 complexes and the chloroplast and cyanobacterial b6f complex. All these complexes couple electron transfer to proton translocation across a closed lipid bilayer(More)
Structures of mitochondrial ubihydroquinone:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (bc(1) complex) from several animal sources have provided a basis for understanding the functional mechanism at the molecular level. Using structures of the chicken complex with and without inhibitors, we analyze the effects of mutation on quinol oxidation at the Q(o) site of the(More)
Monospecific antibodies have been prepared against cytochrome c2 from Rhodopseudomonas spheroides and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, and against cytochrome c' from Rps. capsulata. These antibodies precipitated their respective antigens, but did not cross react with a wide range of procaryotic or eucaryotic cytochromes, or with other bacterial proteins. The(More)
Although it is generally assumed that the plastoquinone pool of thylakoid membranes in leaves of higher plants is rapidly oxidized upon darkening, this is often not the case. A multiflash kinetic fluorimeter was used to monitor the redox state of the plastoquinone pool in leaves. It was found that in many species of plants, particularly those using the(More)