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Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as mediator in a variety of physiological functions, including neurotransmission, platelet aggregation, macrophage function, and vasodilation. The consumption of NO by extracellular hemoglobin and subsequent vasoconstriction have been suggested to be the cause of the mild hypertensive events reported during in vivo(More)
Previously identified, potentially neuroprotective reactions of neuroglobin require the existence of yet unknown redox partners. We show here that the reduction of ferric neuroglobin by cytochrome b(5) is relatively slow (k=6 x 10(2)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.0) and thus is unlikely to be of physiological significance. In contrast, the reaction between ferrous(More)
To develop an assay for hemin dissociation, His64(E7) was replaced by Tyr in sperm whale myoglobin producing a holoprotein with a distinct green color due to an intense absorption band at 600 nm. Val68(E11) was replaced by Phe in the same protein to increase its stability. When excess Tyr64-Val68 apoglobin is mixed with either metmyoglobin or methemoglobin,(More)
A variety of human haemoglobins (Hbs) are produced at different stages of human development, including three embryonic Hbs, foetal Hb and adult Hb. All are heterotetramers. During crystallization experiments on human embryonic Hb Portland (zeta(2)gamma(2)), it was discovered by crystallographic and biochemical analysis that the homotetramer Hb Bart's(More)
Rate constants for hemin dissociation from the alpha and beta subunits of native and recombinant human hemoglobins were measured as a function of protein concentration at pH 7.0, 37 degrees C, using H64Y/V68F apomyoglobin as a hemin acceptor reagent. Hemin dissociation rates were also measured for native isolated alpha and beta chains and for recombinant(More)
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two forms of cytochrome c, iso-1-cytochrome c and iso-2-cytochrome c, encoded by the genes CYC1 and CYC7, respectively. The amino acid sequences of these two isozymes are approximately 80% identical. Cyc3- mutants lack both holocytochromes c, because of a deficiency of cytochrome c heme lyase, the enzyme(More)
The need to develop a blood substitute is now urgent because of the increasing concern over blood-transmitted viral and bacterial pathogens. Cell-free haemoglobin solutions and human haemoglobin synthesized in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated as potential oxygen-carrying substitutes for red blood cells. But these(More)
The distal E7 histidine in vertebrate myoglobins and haemoglobins has been strongly conserved during evolution and is thought to be important in fine-tuning the ligand affinities of these proteins. A hydrogen bond between the N epsilon proton of the distal histidine and the second oxygen atom may stabilize O2 bound to the haem iron. The proximity of the(More)
Sperm whale myoglobin mutants were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis to replace the highly conserved distal histidine residue (His(E7)-64). His-64 was substituted with Gly, Val, Phe, Cys, Met, Lys, Arg, Asp, Thr, and Tyr, and all 10 mutant proteins expressed to approximately 10% of the total soluble cell protein in Escherichia coli as heme(More)