Antony H Schapira

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The structure and function of mitochondrial respiratory-chain enzyme proteins were studied postmortem in the substantia nigra of nine patients with Parkinson's disease and nine matched controls. Total protein and mitochondrial mass were similar in the two groups. NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and NADH cytochrome c reductase activities were(More)
Incubation of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria with the nitric oxide generator, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reversibly inhibited oxygen utilisation with all substrates tested. The visible absorption spectra of the inhibited mitochondria showed that cytochromes c+c1, b and a+a3 were reduced, indicating a block at the distal end of the respiratory chain.(More)
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder with a frequency of 1 in 50 000 live births. In 97% of patients it is caused by the abnormal expansion of a GAA repeat in intron 1 of the FRDA gene on chromosome 9, which encodes a 210 amino acid protein called frataxin. Frataxin is widely expressed and has been localized to mitochondria although(More)
We examine the evidence for free radical involvement and oxidative stress in the pathological process underlying Parkinson's disease, from postmortem brain tissue. The concept of free radical involvement is supported by enhanced basal lipid peroxidation in substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease, demonstrated by increased levels of(More)
Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in muscle and blood from 72 patients with mitochondrial myopathy showed that 30 had major deletions of a variable proportion of muscle mtDNA. All of these 30 patients presented with progressive external ophthalmoplegia and limb weakness, and 8 had the additional features of the Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Of the 42 patients(More)
The presence of α-synuclein aggregates in the characteristic Lewy body pathology seen in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), together with α-synuclein gene mutations in familial PD, places α-synuclein at the center of PD pathogenesis. Decreased levels of the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) proteins LAMP-2A and hsc70 in PD brain samples suggests(More)
The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease may be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases help to protect against toxic environmental compounds and individual variations in cytochrome P450 expression might, therefore, influence susceptibility to environmentally linked diseases. The frequency of mutant CYP2D6 alleles was(More)
Although the Huntington's disease (HD) gene defect has been identified, the structure and function of the abnormal gene product and the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in producing death of selective neuronal populations are not understood. Indirect evidence from several sources indicates that a defect of energy metabolism and consequent excitotoxicity are(More)
Previously we have shown that cell death in the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with an increase in iron content but a decrease in the level of the iron-binding protein ferritin. Alterations in other metal ion levels were also observed; copper levels were reduced, whereas zinc levels were increased. The importance of these(More)
Brain tissue from normal individuals with incidental Lewy bodies and cell loss in pigmented substantia nigra neurons (asymptomatic Parkinson's disease) and age-matched control subjects without nigral Lewy bodies was examined biochemically. There was no difference in dopamine levels or dopamine turnover in the caudate and putamen of individuals with(More)