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Based largely on in vitro measurements, the mechanism of several antidepressant treatments is thought to involve upregulation of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal transduction cascade and a corresponding increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4, the enzyme that metabolizes cAMP. To assess the in vivo status of PDE4, rats were chronically(More)
A multicenter study is under way to investigate the efficacy of allografting of embryonic mesencephalic neurons in a pig model of Parkinson's disease. We have first established that a stable parkinsonian syndrome can be established by l-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication of adult male Göttingen minipigs. We are now using positron(More)
The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of(More)
Human brain mechanisms subserving attention have been assigned to prefrontal, midfrontal, and posterior parietal cortices, as well as to the anterior cingulate and the thalamus. To map these mechanisms in the brain, most studies have used selective attention tasks; few studies have mapped the brain under sustained or divided attention. The present study was(More)
The present study demonstrates changes in rat brain glial metabolism during the acute phase of epilepsy. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced using the lithium-pilocarpine model. Glial metabolism was measured with (14)C-acetate. Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism were also measured using (14)C-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and(More)
OBJECTIVE Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) catabolizes the second messenger 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and may play a critical role in brain diseases. Our aim was to quantify PDE4 in rats with positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS High (n = 6) and low specific activity (SA) (n = 2) higher affinity ((R)-[(11)C]rolipram) and high SA lower(More)
Fluorocitrate, a selective astrocytic toxin, was microinjected into the right striatum of rat brain, and the regional distribution of 14C-acetate was measured using autoradiography. A significant reduction (more than 80%) in 14C-acetate uptake over a 5-minute period was observed in the right striatum, compared with that in the left striatum (saline(More)
Neuroreceptor imaging by PET or SPECT has been widely applied in the field of neurobiology, from basic to clinical investigations, and has the potential to reveal the neurochemical basis of various neurological and psychiatric diseases as well as to provide new knowledge in the field of neuropharmacology. In contrast to the static nature of in vitro(More)
There is a need for suitable non-primate laboratory animals for studies of brain function by positron emission tomography (PET). To provide a comparative index of the circulatory physiology of the pig, we have applied novel PET tracer methodology to seven anaesthetized pigs, and measured cerebral regional oxygen consumption (CMR[O2]), cerebral blood flow(More)
To investigate the regulation mechanism of (14)C-acetate uptake in astrocytes, uptake experiments with cultured rat astrocytes were performed. In this study, we used a relatively low concentration (0.0185 mM) of (14)C-acetate. The uptake was dependent on pH and acetate concentration, and saturated by 10 mM acetate. Furthermore, the selective inhibition by(More)