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The decomposition of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the presence of Cu2+ and glutathione (GSH) was studied by stopped-flow/rapid-scan spectroscopy. Reduction of Cu2+ by GSH and subsequent formation of a GS-*Cu+ complex occurred within 200 ms, with the amount of complex formed depending on the GSH-to-Cu2+ ratio. The rate of GSNO decomposition at a fixed(More)
We investigated how pH affects rat brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with regard to spin-state equilibrium and the thiolate ligand bond of the haem group, catalytic activity, and monomerleft and right arrow dimer equilibrium. At neutral pH, nNOS containing 1 equiv. of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin (BH4) per dimer was mostly high-spin(More)
Peroxynitrite, the reaction product of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O-2) is assumed to decompose upon protonation in a first order process via intramolecular rearrangement to NO3-. The present study was carried out to elucidate the origin of NO2- found in decomposed peroxynitrite solutions. As revealed by stopped-flow spectroscopy, the decay of(More)
The fatty-acylation-deficient bovine endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) mutant (Gly-2 to Ala-2, G2AeNOS) was purified from a baculovirus overexpression system. The purified protein was soluble and highly active (0.2-0.7 micromol of l-citrulline. mg-1.min-1), contained 0. 77+/-0.01 equivalent of haem per subunit, showed a Soret maximum at 396 nm, and exhibited(More)
Ever since the discovery that (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of NOS, its function has been the object of intense research and occasional controversy. Only in the last couple of years a consensus has been reached on what constitutes the main role of BH4 in NO synthesis. In this review we aim to provide an outline of the various ways(More)
The properties of neuronal nitric oxide synthase containing one tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) per dimer [nNOS(BH4+)] were compared to those of the BH4-free enzyme [nNOS(BH4-)]. The stimulation by BH4 of the formation of L-citrulline at the expense of H2O2 production unambiguously demonstrated that BH4 is essential in coupling reductive oxygen activation to Arg(More)
To elucidate potential mechanisms of S-nitrosothiol formation in vivo, we studied nitrosation of GSH and albumin by nitric oxide ((*)NO), peroxynitrite, and (*)NO/O(2)(*)(-). In the presence of O(2), (*)NO yielded 20% of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) at pH 7.5. Ascorbate and the spin trap 4-hydroxy-[2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl] (TEMPOL) inhibited(More)
The biogenesis of nitric oxide is catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which forms L-citrulline and NO from L-arginine. Here we review the enzymology of NOS. We discuss its modular structure, its prosthetic groups and cofactors, and we provide a brief account of present knowledge regarding cellular targeting and regulation of the different isoforms. The(More)
The East Asian variant of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibits significantly reduced dehydrogenase, esterase, and nitroglycerin (GTN) denitrating activities. The small molecule Alda-1 was reported to partly restore low acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity of this variant. In the present study we compared the wild type enzyme (ALDH2*1) with(More)
Oxygen binding to the oxygenase domain of reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) results in two distinct species differing in their Soret and visible absorbance maxima and in their capacity to exchange oxygen by CO. At 7 degrees C, heme-oxy I (with maxima at 420 and 560 nm) is formed very rapidly (k(on) approximately 2.5.10(6) m(-1).s(-1)) in the(More)