Antonis K. Moustakas

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The list of alleles in the HLA-DRB, HLA-DQA, and HLA-DQB gene loci has grown enormously since the last listing in this journal 8 years ago. Crystal structure determination of several human and mouse HLA class II alleles, representative of two gene loci in each species, enables a direct comparison of ortholog and paralog loci. A new numbering system is(More)
Celiac disease is an enteropathy caused by intolerance to dietary gluten. The disorder is strongly associated with DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 (HLA-DQ2) as approximately 95% of celiac patients express this molecule. HLA-DQ2 has unique Ag-binding properties that allow it to present a diverse set of gluten peptides to gluten-reactive CD4+ T cells so instigating an(More)
OBJECTIVE HLA-DRB1*1001 (DR1001) is a shared epitope allele associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study was undertaken to assess the capacity of DR1001 to accommodate citrulline in its binding pockets and to identify citrullinated T cell epitopes derived from joint-associated proteins. METHODS The binding of peptide derivatives containing(More)
The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II locus is the primary genetic linkage to autoimmune diseases. Susceptibility to each such disease is linked to different alleles, with a few alleles showing also dominant protection. The design of vaccines for autoimmune diseases is a long sought-after goal. As knowledge about the pathogenesis of these diseases(More)
The association of celiac disease (CD) with HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 is indicative of preferential mucosal T cell recognition of gluten fragments bound to either DQ allele. We have recently identified two gluten-derived, HLA-DQ8-restricted T cell stimulatory peptides, one each from gliadin and glutenin, recognized by specific T cell clones derived from the small(More)
Insulin is a major target of the autoimmune response associated with destruction of pancreatic beta cells in type 1 diabetes. A peptide that spans the junction of the insulin B chain and the connecting (C) peptide in proinsulin has been reported to stimulate T cells from humans at risk for type 1 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice. Here we show(More)
The major histocompatibility complex Class II alleles, HLA-DQ, and the related HLA-DR, are the chief genetic elements of human type 1 diabetes. These genes code for polymorphic heterodimeric proteins, whose chief function is to trap peptide antigens in the endosome and present them on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, B lymphocytes,(More)
DRB1*08:01 (DR0801) and DRB1*11:01 (DR1101) are highly homologous alleles that have opposing effects on susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). DR0801 confers risk and shares a key feature with other HLA class II alleles that predispose to autoimmunity: a nonaspartic acid at beta57. DR1101 is associated with protection from PBC, and its sequence(More)
Recent research has implicated a large number of gluten-derived peptides in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, a preponderantly HLA-DQ2-associated disorder. Current evidence indicates that the core of some of those peptides is ten amino acids long, while HLA class II normally accommodates nine amino acids in the binding groove. We have now investigated(More)
Three different HLA-DQ0602 restricted T-lymphocyte clones (clones 5, 44, and 48) specific for two different Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) VP16 peptides were used in a series of proliferation assays with BLS-1 cell lines expressing mutated HLA-DQ0604 molecules as APC. Up to four residues in the peptide-binding region of DQ0604 were replaced by the(More)