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The list of alleles in the HLA-DRB, HLA-DQA, and HLA-DQB gene loci has grown enormously since the last listing in this journal 8 years ago. Crystal structure determination of several human and mouse HLA class II alleles, representative of two gene loci in each species, enables a direct comparison of ortholog and paralog loci. A new numbering system is(More)
The major histocompatibility complex Class II alleles, HLA-DQ, and the related HLA-DR, are the chief genetic elements of human type 1 diabetes. These genes code for polymorphic heterodimeric proteins, whose chief function is to trap peptide antigens in the endosome and present them on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, B lymphocytes,(More)
Celiac disease is an enteropathy caused by intolerance to dietary gluten. The disorder is strongly associated with DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 (HLA-DQ2) as approximately 95% of celiac patients express this molecule. HLA-DQ2 has unique Ag-binding properties that allow it to present a diverse set of gluten peptides to gluten-reactive CD4+ T cells so instigating an(More)
Recent research has implicated a large number of gluten-derived peptides in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, a preponderantly HLA-DQ2-associated disorder. Current evidence indicates that the core of some of those peptides is ten amino acids long, while HLA class II normally accommodates nine amino acids in the binding groove. We have now investigated(More)
The association of celiac disease (CD) with HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 is indicative of preferential mucosal T cell recognition of gluten fragments bound to either DQ allele. We have recently identified two gluten-derived, HLA-DQ8-restricted T cell stimulatory peptides, one each from gliadin and glutenin, recognized by specific T cell clones derived from the small(More)
Three different HLA-DQ0602 restricted T-lymphocyte clones (clones 5, 44, and 48) specific for two different Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) VP16 peptides were used in a series of proliferation assays with BLS-1 cell lines expressing mutated HLA-DQ0604 molecules as APC. Up to four residues in the peptide-binding region of DQ0604 were replaced by the(More)
Insulin is a major target of the autoimmune response associated with destruction of pancreatic beta cells in type 1 diabetes. A peptide that spans the junction of the insulin B chain and the connecting (C) peptide in proinsulin has been reported to stimulate T cells from humans at risk for type 1 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice. Here we show(More)
Aims/hypothesis. We modelled the three-dimensional structure of I-Ag7, the chief genetic component of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice, to understand the unusual properties of this molecule. Methods. Modelling was done, in complex with established antigenic peptides, based on the structure of I-Ak. Results. The selectivity of the I-Ag7 molecule changes(More)
The recognition of MHC-peptide complexes by T cells is governed by structural considerations that are determined by the sequences of the individual components and their interaction with each other. We have studied the function of a highly diabetogenic CD8 T cell clone that is specific for insulin B15-23:H-2K(d). We have then related this to modeled(More)
The HLA locus is the strongest risk factor for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)(+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite considerable efforts in the last 35 years, this association is poorly understood. Here we identify (citrullinated) vinculin, present in the joints of ACPA(+) RA patients, as an autoantigen targeted by ACPA and CD4(+) T cells. These(More)