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Interleukin 17-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) are important in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but their route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and their contribution relative to that of other effector T cells remain to be determined. Here we found that mice lacking CCR6, a chemokine receptor characteristic of T(H)-17(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of stromal stem cells that can be isolated from many adult tissues. They can differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage, such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, as well as cells of other embryonic lineages. MSCs can interact with cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems,(More)
We studied the immunoregulatory features of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and in vivo. MSCs inhibited T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and -independent proliferation but did not induce apoptosis on T cells. Such inhibition was paired with a decreased interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and was partially(More)
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) suppress T-cell and dendritic-cell function and represent a promising strategy for cell therapy of autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, no information is currently available on the effects of hMSCs on B cells, which may have a large impact on the clinical use of these cells. hMSCs isolated from the bone marrow and B cells(More)
Clonally expanded populations of B cells carrying somatic mutations of Ig variable (V) region genes have been detected in the CNS of subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that a process of B cell affinity maturation with ensuing production of potentially pathogenic autoantibodies may occur inside the CNS. Here, we have characterized the B cell(More)
The pathophysiology of cerebral cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not understood. We investigated cerebral cortex microvessels during immune-mediated demyelination in the MS model chronic murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by immunolocalization of the endothelial cell tight junction (TJ) integral proteins claudin-5 and(More)
OBJECTIVE Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent cells characterized by immunomodulatory properties and are therefore considered a promising tool for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the influence of murine BM-MSCs on the activation of B cells in (NZB × NZW)F(1) mice as an animal(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a rare subset of stem cells residing in the bone marrow where they closely interact with hematopoietic stem cells and support their growth and differentiation. MSC can differentiate into multiple mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lineages, providing a promising tool for tissue repair. In addition, MSC suppress many T cell, B(More)
BACKGROUND Over recent years numerous patients with severe forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) refractory to conventional therapies have been treated with intense immunosuppression followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). The clinical outcome and the toxicity of AHSCT can be diverse, depending on the various types of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a subset of adult stem cells from bone marrow, to cure experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. METHODS The outcome of the injection of MSCs, in mice immunized with the peptide 139-151 of the proteolipid protein (PLP), was studied analyzing clinical and histological scores of treated(More)