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To meet the demand for more powerful high-performance shared-memory servers, multiprocessor systems must incorporate efficient and scalable cache coherence protocols, such as those based on directory caches. However, the limited directory cache size of the increasingly larger systems may cause frequent evictions of directory entries and, consequently,(More)
Most standard cluster interconnect technologies are flexible with respect to network topology. This has spawned a substantial amount of research on topology-agnostic routing algorithms, which make no assumption about the network structure, thus providing the flexibility needed to route on irregular networks. Actually, such an irregularity should be often(More)
OBJECTIVES Hepatic steatosis (HS) has been related to obesity and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The aim of this study was to determine the role of leptin system in HS development. METHODS Patients (n = 131) with biopsy-proven CHC, positive HCV RNA, and raised ALT were enrolled. Body mass index, percentage of body fat by skin fold measurement, and(More)
In this paper we present a methodology to design fault-tolerant routing algorithms for regular direct interconnection networks. It supports fully adaptive routing, does not degrade performance in the absence of faults, and supports a reasonably large number of faults without significantly degrading performance. The methodology is mainly based on the(More)
Most commercial routers designed for networks of workstations (NOWs) implement wormhole switching. However, wormhole switching is not well suited for NOWs. The long wires required in this environment lead to large buffers to prevent buffer overflow during flow control signaling. Moreover, wire length is limited by buffer size. Virtual cut-through (VCT)(More)
Networks of workstations (NOWs) are being considered as a cost-effective alternative to parallel computers. Most NOWs are arranged as a switch-based network and provide mechanisms for discovering the network topology. Hence, they provide support for both regular and irregular topologies, which makes routing and deadlock avoidance quite complicated. Current(More)
Most of the data referenced by sequential and parallel applications running in current chip multiprocessors are referenced by only one thread and can be considered as private data. A lot of recent proposals leverage this observation to improve many aspects of chip multiprocessors, such as reducing coherence overhead or the access latency to distributed(More)
Congestion management is a very critical problem tackled in interconnection networks for years but not solved yet. Although several mechanisms have been recently proposed for lossless multistage interconnection networks (MINs), they either have drawbacks or are partial solutions. Some of them introduce penalty over packets not really addressed to the(More)