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1. EMG responses evoked in hand muscles by transcranial stimulation over the motor cortex were conditioned by a single motor threshold electrical stimulus to the median nerve at the wrist in a total of ten healthy subjects and in five patients who had electrodes implanted chronically into the cervical epidural space. 2. The median nerve stimulus suppressed(More)
The extent of synchronization within and between the nuclei of the basal ganglia is unknown in Parkinson's disease. The question is an important one because synchronization will increase postsynaptic efficacy at subsequent projection targets. We simultaneously recorded local potentials (LPs) from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus(More)
There is a wealth of data suggesting that behavioural events are reflected in the basal ganglia through phasic changes in the discharge of individual neurones. Here we investigate whether events are also reflected in momentary changes in the degree of synchronization between neuronal elements. We simultaneously recorded local potentials (LPs) from the(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an established neurophysiological tool to examine the integrity of the fast-conducting corticomotor pathways in a wide range of diseases associated with motor dysfunction. This includes but is not limited to patients with multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, movement disorders, disorders(More)
OBJECTIVES The present experiments were designed to compare the understanding of the transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation of the human motorcortex. METHODS The spinal volleys evoked by single transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation over the cerebral motor cortex were recorded from a bipolar electrode inserted into the cervical epidural(More)
Transcranial stimulation of the human motor cortex can evoke several different kinds of descending activity depending on the type of stimulation, the intensity of stimulation and the area of the cortex being stimulated. Thus, transcranial magnetic stimulation preferentially activates different structures than transcranial electrical stimulation. In(More)
Descending corticospinal volleys were recorded from a bipolar electrode inserted into the cervical epidural space of four conscious human subjects after monophasic transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex with a figure-of-eight coil. We examined the effect of reversing the direction of the induced current in the brain from the usual(More)
Here we test the hypothesis that there are distinct temporal patterns of synchronized neuronal activity in the pallidum that characterize untreated and treated parkinsonism and dystonia. To this end we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the caudal and rostral contact pairs of macroelectrodes implanted into the pallidum of patients for the treatment(More)
In four conscious patients who had electrodes implanted in the cervical epidural space for the control of pain, we recorded corticospinal volleys evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex before and after a 20 s period of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). It has previously been reported that this form of(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscarinic receptor blockade with scopolamine modifies the excitability of specific cortical networks of the human motor cortex as tested with transcranial magnetic stimulation. The effects of scopolamine on the excitability of human motor cortex were investigated in four healthy subjects using(More)