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It has long been recognized that the modification of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) to reduce their affinity for beta-lactams is an important mechanism (target modification) by which Gram-positive cocci acquire antibiotic resistance. Among Gram-negative rods (GNR), however, this mechanism has been considered unusual, and restricted to clinically(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic(More)
Bacteria with greatly elevated mutation rates (mutators) are frequently found in natural and laboratory populations, and are often associated with clinical infections. Although mutators may increase adaptability to novel environmental conditions, they are also prone to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. The long-term maintenance of high bacterial(More)
Whether or not resistant mutants will be present before the start of antibiotic treatment of an initially susceptible population of bacteria depends on the size of the infecting population, the rate of mutation to resistance, and the amount of time that the population has been maintained. In the present investigation, we argue that for the treatment of(More)
Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that hyperproduce a dark-brown pigment are quite often found in the lungs of chronically infected patients, suggesting that they may have an adaptive advantage in chronic infections. We have screened a library of random transposon insertions in P. aeruginosa. Transposon insertions resulting in the hyperproduction(More)
The inactivation of ampD in Pseudomonas aeruginosa leads to a partially derepressed phenotype, characterized by a moderately high level basal ampC expression that is still further inducible, due to the presence of two additional ampD genes in this species (ampDh2 and ampDh3). The sequential inactivation of the three ampD genes was shown to lead to a(More)
Development of resistance to the antipseudomonal penicillins and cephalosporins mediated by hyperproduction of the chromosomal cephalosporinase AmpC is a major threat to the successful treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Although ampD inactivation has been previously found to lead to a partially derepressed phenotype characterized by increased(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) and carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae collected from 35 hospitals in Spain and to establish their epidemiological relationships. We conducted a prospective multi-centre study on pAmpC- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical(More)
Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a gram negative pathogen that causes acute respiratory infections and is associated with the progression of chronic respiratory diseases. Previous studies have established the existence of a remarkable genetic variability among NTHi strains. In this study we show that, in spite of a high level of genetic(More)