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Plants and animals produce modular developmental units in a periodic fashion. In plants, lateral roots form as repeating units along the root primary axis; however, the developmental mechanism regulating this process is unknown. We found that cyclic expression pulses of a reporter gene mark the position of future lateral roots by establishing prebranch(More)
This article complements the structural New-Keynesian macro framework with a no-arbitrage term structure model. Whereas our methodology is general, we focus on an extended macro-model with an unobservable time-varying markup and stochastic risk aversion. Term structure information helps to identify the dynamics of the observed and unobserved variables and(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the reliability, and construct validity of the Spanish version of the TNO-AZL preschool children quality of life (TAPQOL). METHODS A consecutive sample of children (3 months to 5 years old) was recruited from primary care centers and two teaching hospitals in Spain. The TAPQOL and a set of questions related to their child's health(More)
of the Basque Country. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Inquire Europe. Koen Inghelbrecht acknowledges financial support from the National Bank of Belgium. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research. ABSTRACT We study the economic sources of(More)
The prevalence of hemolysin, type 1 fimbriae, P fimbriae, cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF-1), aerobactin, and autotransporter toxin (sat) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and phenotypic assays of 42 epidemiologically unrelated Escherichia coli strains causing acute pyelonephritis in women (21 nalidixic acid-susceptible and 21 nalidixic(More)
BACKGROUND Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. METHODS A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona,(More)
The objective of the study was to examine the factors associated with unidentified tuberculosis (TB) index cases (1987-2007) and to describe outbreaks (2000-2007) of childhood TB cases in Barcelona, Spain. Contact tracing seems to be fundamental in index case identification, but improvement could be made among older children and cases of extrapulmonary TB(More)
BACKGROUND The relation between early respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and later emergence of episodes of wheezing/asthma remains a subject of debate. We carried out a systematic review of studies of the association between RSV infection in the first 36 months of life and the subsequent development of asthma/bronchial hyperreactivity. METHODS A(More)
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have remarkable visual learning and discrimination abilities that extend beyond learning simple colours, shapes or patterns. They can discriminate landscape scenes, types of flowers, and even human faces. This suggests that in spite of their small brain, honeybees have a highly developed capacity for processing complex visual(More)
Two mechanisms of resistance to colistin have been described in Acinetobacter baumannii. One involves complete loss of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resulting from mutations in lpxA, lpxC, or lpxD, and the second is associated with phosphoethanolamine addition to LPS, mediated through mutations in pmrAB. In order to assess the clinical impacts of both(More)