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Naive T lymphocytes travel to T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid organs in search of antigen presented by dendritic cells. Once activated, they proliferate vigorously, generating effector cells that can migrate to B-cell areas or to inflamed tissues. A fraction of primed T lymphocytes persists as circulating memory cells that can confer protection and give,(More)
Using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 we have established dendritic cell (DC) lines from blood mononuclear cells that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity characteristic of immature dendritic cells in vivo. These cells have typical dendritic morphology, express high levels of major(More)
The memory T cell pool functions as a dynamic repository of antigen-experienced T lymphocytes that accumulate over the lifetime of the individual. Recent studies indicate that memory T lymphocytes contain distinct populations of central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) cells characterized by distinct homing capacity and effector function. This review(More)
Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) have been characterized in mice as a distinct subset of effector cells, but their identity and properties in humans remain elusive. We report here that expression of CCR6 and CCR4 together identified human memory CD4+ T cells selectively producing IL-17 and expressing mRNA encoding the human(More)
Interleukin 17-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) are important in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but their route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and their contribution relative to that of other effector T cells remain to be determined. Here we found that mice lacking CCR6, a chemokine receptor characteristic of T(H)-17(More)
Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing CD4(+) helper T cells (T(H)-17 cells) have been linked to host defense and autoimmune diseases. In mice, the differentiation of T(H)-17 cells requires transforming growth factor-beta and IL-6 and the transcription factor RORgammat. We report here that for human naive CD4(+) T cells, RORgammat expression and T(H)-17(More)
We have previously demonstrated that human peripheral blood low density mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 develop into dendritic cells (DCs) that are extremely efficient in presenting soluble antigens to T cells. To identify the mechanisms responsible for efficient antigen capture,(More)
We investigated the possibility that T helper cells might enhance the stimulatory function of dendritic cells (DCs). We found that ligation of CD40 by CD40L triggers the production of extremely high levels of bioactive IL-12. Other stimuli such as microbial agents, TNF-alpha or LPS are much less effective or not at all. In addition, CD40L is the most potent(More)
Dendritic cells are cells specialized for antigen capture, migration and T cell stimulation. Recent advances have been made in understanding their origin, their heterogeneity, the mechanism of antigen uptake, and the signals that induce their migration and maturation into immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells. Dendritic cells represent the natural(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) migrate into inflamed peripheral tissues where they capture antigens and, following maturation, to lymph nodes where they stimulate T cells. To gain insight into this process we compared chemokine receptor expression in immature and mature DC. Immature DC expressed CCR1, CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR1 and responded to their respective ligands,(More)