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Recent evidence suggests that peripheral markers related to oxidative stress, inflammation and neurotrophins may be altered during mood episodes in bipolar disorder. These can be seen as proxies of peripheral toxicity or markers of illness activity. Here we report an en bloc assessment of a set of previously described biomarkers in different mood states (n(More)
OBJECTIVES Abnormalities in neurotrophic systems have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as shown by decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and association with BDNF genetic polymorphisms. In this study, we investigate whether these findings can be detected in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is(More)
We apply the averaging theory of first, second and third order to the class of generalized polynomial Liénard differential equations. Our main result shows that for any n, m ≥ 1 there are differential equations of the form¨x + f (x) ˙ x + g(x) = 0, with f and g polynomials of degree n and m respectively, having at least [(n + m − 1)/2] limit cycles, where(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous reports suggest that cytokines act as potential mediators of the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and that a proinflammatory state may be associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The aim is to compare cytokine levels in both disorders. METHOD Twenty euthymic bipolar disorder patients, 53 chronic(More)
The authors investigated obsessive-compulsive behavior, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 50 healthy subjects, 50 patients with rheumatic fever without chorea, and 56 patients with Sydenham chorea. Obsessive-compulsive behavior, OCD, and ADHD were more frequent in the Sydenham chorea group (19%,(More)
This review article gives an overview of a number of central neuro-transmitters, which are essential for integrating many functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as learning, memory, sleep cycle, body movement, hormone regulation and many others. Neurons use neuro-transmitters to communicate, and a great variety of molecules are known to fit the(More)
Some studies have demonstrated altered circulating levels of cytokines, including IL-6, in Parkinson's disease (PD), implying a possible involvement of inflammatory and immune-mediated mechanisms in its pathogenesis. Moreover, the increased production of inflammatory cytokines has been associated with cognitive impairment and poor physical performance in(More)
In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the levels of neurotrophins (NF) of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in different stages of treatment and their relationship with OCD clinical features. Forty patients with OCD and 40 healthy controls had Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), and Glial Cell-Derived(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence of decreased neurotrophic support in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including its prodromal stages, but it is not clear whether this abnormality represents a marker of this process. OBJECTIVE To determine serum concentrations of a panel of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, and GDNF) in a cross-section of elderly patients with mild(More)