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Plants contain three thioredoxin systems. Chloroplast thioredoxins are reduced by ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, whereas the cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxins are reduced by NADPH thioredoxin reductase (NTR). There is high similarity among NTRs from plants, lower eukaryotes, and bacteria, which are different from mammal NTR. Here we describe the(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana thioredoxin subgroup h III is composed of four members and includes the two monocysteinic (CXXS) thioredoxins encoded by the genome. We show that AtCXXS1 is the ortholog of monocysteinic thioredoxins present in all higher plants. In contrast, unicellular algae and the moss Physcomitrella patens do not encode monocysteinic(More)
Thioredoxins h are ubiquitous proteins reduced by NADPH- thioredoxin reductase (NTR). They are able to reduce disulphides in target proteins. In monocots, thioredoxins h accumulate at high level in seeds and show a predominant localization in the nucleus of seed cells. These results suggest that the NTR-thioredoxin h system probably plays an important role(More)
Two full-length cDNA clones, designated TrxhA and TrxhB, encoding different but very similar thioredoxin h polypeptides were isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring) aleurone cells. The deduced proteins show a high similarity to each other and to thioredoxin h from other sources, in particular from T. aestivum and T. durum. One of them,(More)
In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is(More)
Thioredoxin h (Trx h) proteins are ubiquitous in all wheat organs, but show the highest accumulation in mature seeds. This distribution suggests the expression of Trx h during seed development. In the present study, we have analyzed the pattern of Trx h expression in developing wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Northern blot analysis detected a single(More)
Plant thioredoxins (TRXs) are involved in redox regulation of a wide variety processes and usually exhibit organ specificity. We report strong evidence that chloroplastic TRXs are localized in heterotrophic tissues and suggest some ways in which they might participate in several metabolic and developmental processes. The promoter regions of the(More)
The sessile nature of plants forces them to face an ever-changing environment instead of escape from hostile conditions as animals do. In order to overcome this survival challenge, a fine monitoring and controlling of the status of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the general metabolism is vital for these organisms. Frequently, evolutionary(More)
Plants are the organisms containing the most complex multigenic family for thioredoxins (TRX). Several types of TRXs are targeted to chloroplasts, which have been classified into four subgroups: m, f, x, and y. Among them, TRXs f and m were the first plastidial TRXs characterized, and their function as redox modulators of enzymes involved in carbon(More)
The largest group of plant thioredoxins (TRXs) consists of the so-called h-type; their great number raises questions about their specific or redundant roles in plant cells. Pisum sativum thioredoxin h1 (PsTRXh1) and Pisum sativum thioredoxin h2 (PsTRXh2) are both h-type TRXs from pea (Pisum sativum) previously identified and biochemically characterized.(More)