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The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of ∼4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities in surface sediments collected at 64 sites by targeted sequencing of(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the normal temporal variation in the human microbiome is critical to developing treatments for putative microbiome-related afflictions such as obesity, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease and malnutrition. Sequencing and computational technologies, however, have been a limiting factor in performing dense time series analysis(More)
Coevolution of mammals and their gut microbiota has profoundly affected their radiation into myriad habitats. We used shotgun sequencing of microbial community DNA and targeted sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes to gain an understanding of how microbial communities adapt to extremes of diet. We sampled fecal DNA from 33 mammalian species and 18(More)
Many of the immune and metabolic changes occurring during normal pregnancy also describe metabolic syndrome. Gut microbiota can cause symptoms of metabolic syndrome in nonpregnant hosts. Here, to explore their role in pregnancy, we characterized fecal bacteria of 91 pregnant women of varying prepregnancy BMIs and gestational diabetes status and their(More)
The completeness and consistency conditions were introduced in order to achieve acceptable concept recognition rules. In real problems, we can handle noise-aaected examples and it is not always possible to maintain both conditions. Moreover, when we use fuzzy information there is a partial matching between examples and rules, therefore the consistency(More)
We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in(More)
Our body habitat-associated microbial communities are of intense research interest because of their influence on human health. Because many studies of the microbiota are based on the same bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene target, they can, in principle, be compared to determine the relative importance of different disease/physiologic/developmental(More)
Recent analyses of human-associated bacterial diversity have categorized individuals into 'enterotypes' or clusters based on the abundances of key bacterial genera in the gut microbiota. There is a lack of consensus, however, on the analytical basis for enterotypes and on the interpretation of these results. We tested how the following factors influenced(More)
It is now apparent that the complex microbial communities found on and in the human body vary across individuals. What has largely been missing from previous studies is an understanding of how these communities vary over time within individuals. To the extent to which it has been considered, it is often assumed that temporal variability is negligible for(More)
The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Accession numbers for all primary sequencing data are given in Supplementary Information. Abstract A variety of microbial communities and their genes (microbiome) exist throughout the human body, playing fundamental roles in human health(More)