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Aspergillus niger is a significant component of the fungal community on grapes. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 (FB2) was recently detected in grape must and wine as well as in cultures of some A. niger strains isolated from grapes and raisins. This study examined 48 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri for the presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in(More)
The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a group of mycotoxigenic fungi that are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat worldwide. The distribution, frequency of occurrence, and genetic diversity of FGSC species in cereal crops in South America is not well understood compared to some regions of Asia, Europe and North America.(More)
The importance and widespread incidence of Fusarium poae as a natural contaminant of wheat in different climatic areas warrants investigation into the genetic diversity and toxin profile of a northern Italy population. Eighty-one strains of F. poae isolated from durum wheat kernels, identified by species-specific polymerase chain reaction and translation(More)
The production of mycotoxins and other metabolites by 109 strains of Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and F. kyushuense was investigated independently in four laboratories by liquid or gas chromatography analyses of cultural extracts with UV diode array, electron capture, or mass spectrometric detection systems. From the(More)
The ability to produce fumonisin mycotoxins varies among members of the black aspergilli. Previously, analyses of selected genes in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster in black aspergilli from California grapes indicated that fumonisin-nonproducing isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae lack six fum genes, but nonproducing isolates of Aspergillus(More)
The potential risk of exposure to fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) in the grape-wine chain has recently been revealed after a report of Aspergillus niger in grapes and its ability to produce FB(2) and FB(4). The occurrence of these two fumonisins in wine was investigated by LC/MS/MS in 51 market samples (45 red, five white and one rose wine) produced in various(More)
A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive HPLC method for routine screening of beauvericin, fusaproliferin, and enniatin B(1), A(1), and B has been optimized. Detection limits were determined, ranging between 0. 5 and 3.6 ng according to the compound obtained after spiking samples with each mycotoxin at 10-56 microg/mL concentration range; recoveries averaging(More)
European wine production represents about 70% of world production and thus is an important export commodity. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was first detected as a wine contaminant in 1996 and the role of Aspergillus section Nigri and A. carbonarius in OTA production discovered in Europe in 1999. Subsequently Europe-wide surveys have shown that A. carbonarius is(More)
Fusarium fungal contaminants and related mycotoxins were investigated in eight maize feed samples submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Fusarium moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans were isolated from seven, eight, and five samples, respectively. These strains belonged to mating populations A, D, and E of the(More)
Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related variables (sampling method, host cultivar, previous crop, etc.)(More)