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Quantitative measurement of brain size, shape, and temporal change (for example, in order to estimate atrophy) is increasingly important in biomedical image analysis applications. New methods of structural analysis attempt to improve robustness, accuracy, and extent of automation. A fully automated method of longitudinal (temporal change) analysis, SIENA,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess cortical gray matter (GM) changes in MS and establish their relevance to clinical disability and to inflammatory changes of white matter (WM) in patients with the relapsing-remitting (RR) and primary progressive (PP) forms of the disease. METHODS Conventional MRI examinations were obtained in patients with definite MS who had either(More)
The relevance of correlations between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes across the brain acquired at rest (resting state networks, or RSN) to functional networks was tested using two quantitative criteria: (1) the localisation of major RSN correlation clusters and the task-related maxima defined in BOLD fMRI signal changes from the(More)
BACKGROUND Conventional MRI can provide critical information for care of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but MRI abnormalities rarely correlate to clinical severity and outcome. Previous magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have reported clinically relevant brain metabolic changes in patients with TBI. However, these changes were often(More)
BACKGROUND The definition of benign multiple sclerosis (B-MS) is still controversial. This mainly takes into account the subject's motor ability, with little or no relevance to other important features such as cognition. Moreover, no paraclinical markers are currently available to reliably identify patients who will remain benign in the long term. (More)
The cerebellum is implicated in maintaining the saccadic subsystem efficient for vision by minimizing movement inaccuracy and by learning from endpoint errors. This ability is often disrupted in degenerative cerebellar diseases, as demonstrated by saccade kinetic abnormalities. The study of saccades in these patients may therefore provide insights into the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent clinical and imaging studies have raised the hypothesis that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon4 allele may have a more severe disease course than those without the ApoE epsilon4 allele. This seems to be related to more extensive tissue destruction and less efficient neuronal maintenance and(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), which leads to strokes and dementia, is caused by single missense mutations or, in a few cases, small deletions in the NOTCH3 gene. These mutations result in a gain or a loss of 1 (or, rarely, 3) cysteine residue in 1 of 34 epidermal growth(More)
Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy (SCCD, MIM 121800) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive opacification of the cornea resulting from the local accumulation of lipids, and associated in some cases with systemic dyslipidemia. Although previous studies of the genetics of SCCD have localized the defective gene to a 1.58 Mbp(More)
Spastic paraplegia with thinning of the corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC) is a relatively frequent form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia in which mental retardation and muscle stiffness at onset are followed by slowly progressive paraparesis and cognitive deterioration. Although genetically heterogeneous, ARHSP-TCC is frequently associated with(More)