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CCL2 plays a pivotal role in the recruitment of different immune cells to sites of inflammation and evidence indicates its involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. MS lesions are characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate, whose nature is controlled by chemokines and cytokines, and elevated expression of CCL2 has been found in acute and chronic(More)
OBJECTIVES Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome represents one of the main urinary disorders associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). At present, no widely accepted effective treatment is available. Duloxetine, an antidepressant acting as a selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of some symptoms(More)
Vitamin D (vitD) low status is currently considered a main environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) etiology and pathogenesis. VitD and its metabolites are highly hydrophobic and circulate mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and with lower affinity to albumin, while less than 1% are in a free form. The aim of this study was to(More)
In this independent, multicentre post-marketing study we directly compared the effectiveness of natalizumab (NTZ), fingolimod (FNG) and self-injectable drugs (INJ), in non-responders to first immunomodulating treatment and in highly active treatment-naïve patients with multiple sclerosis. As main outcome measure we considered the proportions of patients(More)
BACKGROUND In multiple sclerosis (MS), pathophysiology of fatigue is only partially known. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate whether the attention-induced modulation on short- and long-term cortical plasticity mechanisms in primary motor area (M1) is abnormal in patients with MS-related fatigue. METHODS All participants underwent 5-Hz(More)
OBJECTIVE In this clinical and neuroimaging study, we sought information on the possible role of neurovascular compression in multiple sclerosis (MS)-related trigeminal neuralgia (TN). METHODS After screening 1,628 consecutive patients with MS, we enrolled 28 patients with definite unilateral MS-related TN. In these patients, we acquired dedicated 3T MRI(More)
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