Antonio Carrillo-Vico

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This review summarizes the numerous observations published in recent years which have shown that one of the most significant of melatonin's pleiotropic effects is the regulation of the immune system. The overview summarizes the immune effects of pinealectomy and the association between rhythmic melatonin production and adjustments in the immune system as(More)
Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described(More)
The neurohormone melatonin plays a fundamental role in neuroimmunomodulation of several mammalian species, including mice. This effect is supported by the existence of specific melatonin-binding sites in murine immunocompetent organs. Moreover, using melatonin receptor analogues, several effects of the neurohormone on mice physiology through its membrane(More)
Septic shock, the most severe problem of sepsis, is a lethal condition caused by the interaction of a pathogen-induced long chain of sequential intracellular events in immune cells, epithelium, endothelium, and the neuroendocrine system. The lethal effects of septic shock are associated with the production and release of numerous pro-inflammatory(More)
Melatonin could act on immune system by regulating cytokine production of immunocompetent cells. The hormone enhances IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-6 production by cultured human mononuclear cells. As enhancement of IL-6 production is related to monocyte activation by melatonin, the hormone acts on human lymphoid cells causing a Th1-type response. This paper shows(More)
It has been historically assumed that the pineal gland is the major source of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in vertebrates. Melatonin plays a central role in fine-tuning circadian rhythms in vertebrate physiology. In addition, melatonin shows a remarkable functional versatility exhibiting antioxidant, oncostatic, antiaging, and immunomodulatory(More)
Afterhe successful discovery of the melatonin molecule by Aaron B Lerner et al at Yale University in 1958, melatonin and the pineal gland, a tiny endocrine gland situated at the center of the human brain, have primarily been considered in terms of their effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems. During the last decade, a substantial body of research(More)
It is well known that melatonin plays a fundamental role in human neuro-immunomodulation. Thus, melatonin regulates the production of a large number of cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) in the human system. Both membrane and nuclear receptors for melatonin are present in lymphoid cells. However, most of these effects have been shown to be mediated(More)
Melatonin production is not restricted to the pineal gland. Several extrapineal sources of this indole such as retina, Harderian gland, and immune system are well documented. Melatonin of pineal origin is not present in the rat at early stages of development. To assess the potential capacity of local melatonin synthesis by the immature brain and to gain(More)
Melatonin modulates a wide array of physiological events with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. While the relevance of specific melatonin membrane receptors has been well established for several biological functions, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) has been suggested as a mediator of nuclear melatonin signalling by results(More)