Antonio Capuzzo

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Pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity, favours intracellular cAMP concentration increase. In-vitro treatment of semen with pentoxifylline leads to marked augmentation of sperm motility, enhancement of acrosome reaction, increase of sperm penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes, and protection of the sperm plasma membrane. Such(More)
The physiological role of the catecholamines (CA), adrenaline and noradrenaline in fish has been frequently reviewed, but the metabolic consequences of these hormones have received less attention. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature dealing with CA actions on whole fish and tissue metabolism. The CA increase glucose production(More)
Pharmaceuticals represent a diverse collection of thousands of bioactive chemicals used in human and veterinary medicine. The increased consumption, together with the recent development of more sensitive analytical techniques, has identified these as emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment. According to many investigations pharmaceuticals do not(More)
The adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP system regulates a large number of physiological functions in bivalve mussels, although its basal properties and the potential effects of environmental pollutants are scarcely studied. We characterized some properties of AC and measured both the enzyme activity and the cAMP levels in the gills of the filter-feeding sea mussel(More)
Widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals is reported in aquatic systems, posing concerns for the health of aquatic wildlife and a theoretical risk to humans. A recent concept was developed for the identification of highly active compounds amongst the environmental pharmaceuticals, based on their mode of action, the homology between human targets and(More)
The Northwestern Adriatic Sea is a commercially important area in aquaculture, accounting for about 90% of the Italian mussel production, and it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algae poisoning. A spatial and temporal survey of four sites along the North Adriatic Sea coasts of Emilia Romagna (Italy) was undertaken to(More)
The effects of opiates on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels have been studied in sympathetic ganglia of guinea-pig, rat and rabbit. D-[Ala2]-Met-enkephalinamide inhibits cAMP synthesis in guinea pig and rat but not in rabbit ganglia, while morphine is always ineffective. In the presence of the enkephalin plus prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) a synergistic(More)
The presence of G proteins and their involvement in adrenergic signaling has been investigated in catfish (Ictalurus melas) liver membranes. Adenylyl cyclase activity was potently stimulated by the nonhydrolyzable analog of GTP, [35S]guanosine 5'-O-(gamma-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) (maximal activation of about eightfold at 10(-5) M; half-maximal(More)
Crude membrane fractions, obtained from superior cervical ganglia of normal and sympathectomized guinea-pigs, have been used to investigate the role of prostaglandin E2 andd-ala2-met-enkephalinamide in the modulation of ganglionic adenylate cyclase as well as their functional interrelationship. In ganglia from normal animals the enzyme activity was(More)
Adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase activity in crude guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion homogenates was assayed under a variety of experimental conditions. Two forms of cAMP phosphodiesterase were found, one with high and the other with low affinity for the substrate. TheK m values were about 1 and 110 μM respectively.(More)