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DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular, thymus and parathyroid defects and craniofacial anomalies, and is usually caused by a heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) (ref. 1). A targeted, heterozygous deletion, named Df(16)1, encompassing around 1 megabase of the homologous region in mouse causes cardiovascular(More)
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypoplastic or absent clavicles, large fontanelles, dental anomalies and delayed skeletal development. The phenotype is suggestive of a generalized defect in ossification and is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias not associated with disproportionate stature. To date, no(More)
Dysmorphogenesis of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT) causes many congenital heart defects, including those associated with DiGeorge syndrome. Genetic manipulation in the mouse and mutational analysis in patients have shown that Tbx1, a T-box transcription factor, has a key role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Here, we have dissected Tbx1 function(More)
The development of the segmented pharyngeal apparatus involves complex interaction of tissues derived from all three germ layers. The role of mesoderm is the least studied, perhaps because of its apparent lack of anatomical boundaries and positionally restricted gene expression. Here, we report that the mesoderm-specific deletion of Tbx1, a T-box(More)
Coronary arteries bring blood flow to the heart muscle. Understanding the developmental program of the coronary arteries provides insights into the treatment of coronary artery diseases. Multiple sources have been described as contributing to coronary arteries including the proepicardium, sinus venosus (SV), and endocardium. However, the developmental(More)
Human trisomy 21, the chromosomal basis of Down syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of heart defects. Regions on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) are syntenically conserved with three regions located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of duplications of each syntenic region on cardiovascular(More)
The LIM-homeodomain protein Lmx1b plays a central role in dorso-ventral patterning of the vertebrate limb. Targeted disruption of Lmx1b results in skeletal defects including hypoplastic nails, absent patellae and a unique form of renal dysplasia (see accompanying manuscript by H. Chen et al.; ref. 2). These features are reminiscent of the dominantly(More)
TBX1 is the major candidate gene for DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). Mouse studies have shown that the Tbx1 gene is haploinsufficient, as expected for a DGS candidate gene, and that it is required for the development of pharyngeal arches and pouches, as predicted by the DGS clinical phenotype. However, a detailed analysis of the cardiovascular phenotype associated(More)
Tbx1 haploinsufficiency causes aortic arch abnormalities in mice because of early growth and remodeling defects of the fourth pharyngeal arch arteries. The function of Tbx1 in the development of these arteries is probably cell non-autonomous, as the gene is not expressed in structural components of the artery but in the surrounding pharyngeal endoderm. We(More)