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Activation of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) and of its subtypes may play a role in neuronal damage and neuroinflammation associated with brain ischemia, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we have examined by Western blotting the expression of RAGE isoforms in the cerebral cortex and striatum of Wistar rats(More)
UNLABELLED Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for Parkinson's disease (PD) and systemic administration of these cells has been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. However, no information on survival and actual capacity of MSCs to reach the brain has been provided. In this study, we evaluated homing of(More)
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) has been intensively investigated. In general NO is regarded as a mediator of ischemia-associated neuronal damage, as inhibitors of NO synthesis ameliorate neuronal injury during permanent focal cerebral ischemia, however the exact role of NO in ischemia remains controversial. It has been(More)
OBJECTIVE In this study, we evaluated the influence of sex and estrogen treatment on nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced neuronal activation in the rat brain. BACKGROUND Systemic NTG activates cerebral nuclei of rat involved in nociceptive transmission, as well as in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions. These changes are considered relevant for migraine, since(More)
Systemic nitroglycerin (NTG) produces spontaneous-like migraine attacks in migraine sufferers and induces a condition of hyperalgesia in the rat 4 h after its administration. Endocannabinoid system seems to be involved in the modulation of NTG-induced hyperalgesia, and probably, in the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine. In this study, the analgesic(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) is known to play a key role in migraine pathogenesis, but modulation of NO synthesis has failed so far to show efficacy in migraine treatment. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, whose levels are regulated by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Systemic administration of nitroglycerin(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental animal models of migraine have suggested the existence of interactions between the endocannabinoid system and pain mediation in migraine. Extensive evidence has demonstrated a role for the cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor in antinociception. However, recent research suggests that also CB2 receptors, especially located outside the central(More)
Local injections of botulinum toxins have been reported to be useful not only for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain and migraine but also to cause long-lasting muscle paralysis, a potentially serious side effect. Recently, a botulinum A-based molecule ("BiTox") has been synthesized that retains neuronal silencing capacity without triggering(More)
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