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BACKGROUND Sexual violence is an important public health problem in the United States, with 13% to 26% of women reporting a history of sexual assault. While unfortunately common, there is substantial individual variability in response to sexual assault. Approximately half of rape victims develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while others develop no(More)
Emotional instability is a hallmark feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet its biological underpinnings are poorly understood. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare patterns of regional brain activation in BPD patients and healthy volunteers as they process positive and negative social emotional stimuli. fMRI(More)
Cognitive reappraisal is a commonly used and highly adaptive strategy for emotion regulation that has been studied in healthy volunteers. Most studies to date have focused on forms of reappraisal that involve reinterpreting the meaning of stimuli and have intermixed social and non-social emotional stimuli. Here we examined the neural correlates of the(More)
Abnormal fronto-amygdala circuitry has been implicated in impulsive aggression, a core symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We examined relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) at rest and after m-CPP (meta-chloropiperazine) with (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) in 26 impulsive aggressive (IED)-BPD patients and(More)
BACKGROUND The cingulate gyrus, which is involved in affect, attention, memory and higher executive functions, has been implicated as a dysfunctional region in schizophrenia. Postmortem studies report cytoarchitectural changes in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) and functioning imaging studies show correlations between the degree of hypometabolism of the(More)
BACKGROUND Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an inability to regulate emotional responses. The amygdala is important in learning about the valence (goodness and badness) of stimuli and functions abnormally in BPD. METHODS Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed in three groups: unmedicated BPD (n =(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors examined the relationship of borderline personality disorder to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with respect to the role of trauma and its timing. METHOD The Trauma History Questionnaire and the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R were administered to 180 male and female outpatients with a diagnosis of(More)
BACKGROUND Emotional instability is a defining feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD); yet, little is understood about its underlying neural correlates. One possible contributing factor to emotional instability is a failure to adequately employ adaptive cognitive regulatory strategies such as psychological distancing. METHODS To determine(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) share cognitive deficits with schizophrenic patients, suggesting that these deficits represent a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum. We investigated the neuropsychological profile in SPD patients compared with two comparison groups: healthy volunteers (HV) and patients who met(More)
Patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders show deficient prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle eyeblink reflex which is thought to reflect an early stage of information processing called automatic sensorimotor gating. They also exhibit deficient attentional modulation of PPI and prepulse facilitation (PPF) of startle which is thought to reflect(More)