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BACKGROUND Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States. OBJECTIVES We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. OBJECTIVES We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS),(More)
We measured the urinary monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in approximately 2,540 samples collected from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000, who were greater than or equal to 6 years of age. We found detectable levels of metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate(More)
Prenatal phthalate exposure impairs testicular function and shortens anogenital distance (AGD) in male rodents. We present data from the first study to examine AGD and other genital measurements in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure in humans. A standardized measure of AGD was obtained in 134 boys 2-36 months of age. AGD was significantly correlated(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which are used in baby bottles, as protective coatings on food containers, and for composites and sealants in dentistry. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is used to make nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonionic surfactants applied as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or stabilizing agents in(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), including some phthalates, phytoestrogens and phenols can be quantified using biomarkers of exposure. However, reliability in the use of these biomarkers requires an understanding of the timeframe of exposure represented by one measurement. Data on the temporal variability of ED biomarkers are sparse,(More)
We measured the concentrations of 11 polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs), including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in 1562 serum samples collected from a representative U.S. population 12 years of age and older in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.(More)
BACKGROUND Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. OBJECTIVE We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. METHODS We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic(More)
Phthalates are a group of industrial chemicals with many commercial uses, such as solvents, additives, and plasticizers. For example, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is added in varying amounts to certain plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride, to increase their flexibility. In humans, phthalates are metabolized to their respective monoesters, conjugated,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have reported developmental toxicity among rodents dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). OBJECTIVES We examined the relationship between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in cord serum (surrogates for in utero exposures) and gestational age, birth weight, and birth size in humans. METHODS We(More)