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BACKGROUND Severe refractory asthma (SRA) is characterized by persistent asthma symptoms, amplified airway inflammation despite treatment with high dose inhaled steroids and increased airway bacterial colonization. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates airway inflammation. Furthermore, as a product of the(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inflammatory and immune responses play key roles in the development and progression of COPD. Recent data provide evidence for a role in the NLRP3 inflammasome in the airway inflammation observed in COPD. Cigarette smoke activates innate immune cells by triggering pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to release(More)
BACKGROUND Not all patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progressively hyperinflate during symptom limited exercise. The pattern of change in chest wall volumes (Vcw) was investigated in patients with severe COPD who progressively hyperinflate during exercise and those who do not. METHODS Twenty patients with forced expiratory(More)
On 18 April 2014, a case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was laboratory confirmed in Athens, Greece in a patient returning from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Main symptoms upon initial presentation were protracted fever and diarrhoea, during hospitalisation he developed bilateral pneumonia and his condition worsened. During 14(More)
It has been suggested that in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) is generated by a disproportionate increase in expiratory flow resistance. Using the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique, we assessed whether expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and PEEPi were present at zero PEEP(More)
BACKGROUND The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus was accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with documented 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus admitted to a reference chest hospital, the disease outcome, and risk factors associated with ICU admission. METHODS We assessed(More)
In order to investigate underlying mechanisms, the present authors studied the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on the regulation of total chest wall and compartmental (ribcage, abdominal) volumes during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In total, 20 patients (forced expiratory volume in one second, mean +/- SEM 39 +/- 3%(More)
AIM To investigate the prevalence of chronic dyspnea and its relationship to respiratory muscle function in end-stage liver disease. METHODS Sixty-eight consecutive, ambulatory, Caucasian patients with end-stage liver disease, candidates for liver transplantation, were referred for preoperative respiratory function assessment. Forty of these (29 men) were(More)
OBJECTIVE We present our experience with five cases of pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and analysis of risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING Case-control study in a 15-bed intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS The study included 5 cases and 20 controls. Each case patient was matched to four(More)
Respiratory failure occurs due mainly either to lung failure resulting in hypoxaemia or pump failure resulting in alveolar hypoventilation and hypercapnia. Hypercapnic respiratory failure may be the result of mechanical defects, central nervous system depression, imbalance of energy demands and supplies and/or adaptation of central controllers. Hypercapnic(More)