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It has been suggested that in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) is generated by a disproportionate increase in expiratory flow resistance. Using the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique, we assessed whether expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and PEEPi were present at zero PEEP(More)
We present our experience with five cases of pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and analysis of risk factors. Case-control study in a 15-bed intensive care unit (ICU). The study included 5 cases and 20 controls. Each case patient was matched to four contemporary controls according to gender, prior hospital(More)
Lung mechanics, exhaled NO (NOe), and TNF-alpha in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed in eight closed and eight open chest, normal anesthetized rabbits undergoing prolonged (3-4 h) mechanical ventilation (MV) at low volume with physiological tidal volumes (10 ml/kg). Relative to initial MV on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), MV at(More)
BACKGROUND Severe refractory asthma (SRA) is characterized by persistent asthma symptoms, amplified airway inflammation despite treatment with high dose inhaled steroids and increased airway bacterial colonization. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates airway inflammation. Furthermore, as a product of the(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inflammatory and immune responses play key roles in the development and progression of COPD. Recent data provide evidence for a role in the NLRP3 inflammasome in the airway inflammation observed in COPD. Cigarette smoke activates innate immune cells by triggering pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to release(More)
On 18 April 2014, a case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was laboratory confirmed in Athens, Greece in a patient returning from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Main symptoms upon initial presentation were protracted fever and diarrhoea, during hospitalisation he developed bilateral pneumonia and his condition worsened. During 14(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O) on tidal expiratory flow limitation (FL), regional intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) inhomogeneity, alveolar recruited volume (Vrec), respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gases in mechanically ventilated patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess static intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi,st) and expiratory flow limitation (FL) in 32 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), using a commercial ventilator with an incorporated device that allows the application of a negative expiratory pressure (NEP). DESIGN Prospective(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory symptoms are usually underestimated in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Therefore, we set out to investigate the prevalence of patients chronic dyspnea and the relationship of the symptom to lung function indices. METHODS Twenty-five clinically stable hemodialysis patients were included. The(More)
To assess respiratory mechanics on the 1st and 5th days of mechanical ventilation in a cohort of brain-damaged patients on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cmH2O or zero PEEP (ZEEP). Physiological study with randomized control trial design in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twenty-one consecutive mechanically(More)