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Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis are vectors of the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti. Recently, the I. scapularis-borne bacterium Borrelia miyamotoi has been linked to human illness in North America. The range of this tick is expanding in Canada which may increase the potential for human exposure(More)
From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta(More)
Six tests for the detection of West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies in the serum of experimentally infected chickens were compared. The tests included the hemagglutination-inhibition test (HIT), immunoglobulin M (IgM)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with WNV-infected mouse brain antigen, immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect ELISA with tickborne(More)
Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were trapped in southern Manitoba, Canada and tested for evidence of Sin Nombre virus infection. Viral genome was amplified from tissues as well as saliva/oropharyngeal fluid, and urine samples were collected from seropositive animals. Detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and excreta/secreta from mice suggest that(More)
We developed PCR-based assays to distinguish a human pathogenic strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ap-ha, from Ap-variant 1, a strain not associated with human infection. The assays were validated on A. phagocytophilum-infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) collected in Canada. The relative prevalence of these 2 strains in I. scapularis ticks(More)
An outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred at a captive breeding facility for the endangered eastern loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans) in August 2002. Within 10 d, five birds died; two were found dead, and the others died shortly after showing neurologic signs. West Nile virus was detected in all organs examined using(More)
The utility of the VecTest antigen-capture assay to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in field-collected dead corvids was evaluated in Manitoba and Ontario, Canada, in 2001 and 2002. Swabs were taken from the oropharynx, cloaca, or both of 109 American Crows, 31 Blue Jays, 6 Common Ravens, and 4 Black-billed Magpies from Manitoba, and 255 American Crows and 28(More)
Two commercially available West Nile virus (WNV) detection assays (RAMP WNV test, Response Biomedical Corp., Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; and VecTest WNV antigen assay, Medical Analysis Systems, Inc., Camarillo, CA) were compared for sensitivity, specificity, and ability to detect WNV in field-collected mosquito pools. Serially diluted stock seed WNV(More)
Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat(More)
We compared Nobuto filter paper (FP) whole-blood samples to serum for detecting antibodies to seven pathogens in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Serum and FP samples were collected from captive reindeer in 2008-2009. Sample pairs (serum and FP eluates) were assayed in duplicate at diagnostic laboratories with the use of competitive enzyme-linked(More)