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The question of whether the finite values of the correlation dimension (D2), used as an index of EEG complexity are due to its chaotic nature or they reflect its behaviour as linearly-correlated noise, remains open. This report aims at clarifying this by measuring D2 and analysing the non-linear nature of EEG through the method of surrogate data as well as(More)
Interhemispheric differences in the EEG of nine healthy right-handed human subjects (C3 vs. C4 derivations) were investigated during resting wake with closed eyes (CE) and sleep stages I, II, III, IV and REM. The harmonic power spectral density within the EEG main spectral bands, the fractal (Dr) and the correlation (D2) dimension as well as the largest(More)
We investigate the problems that might arise when two recently developed methods for detecting interdependencies between time series using state space embedding are applied to signals of different complexity. With this aim, these methods were used to assess the interdependencies between two electroencephalographic channels from 10 adult human subjects(More)
Electroencephalogram (EEG) from dorsal cortex of lizard Gallotia galloti was analyzed at different temperatures to test the presence of fractal or nonlinear structure during open (OE) and closed eyes (CE), with the aim of comparing these results with those reported for human slow-wave sleep (SWS). Two nonlinear parameters characterizing EEG complexity(More)
Thus far, most hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of sleep only addressed the probable origin of its main states, REM and NREM. Our article presents the origin of the whole continuum of mammalian vigilance states including waking, sleep and hibernation and the causes of the alternation NREM-REM in a sleeping episode. We propose: (1) the active state of(More)
Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist capable to induce seizures and an epilepticus-like state in rodents. This status epilepticus (SE) is an useful animal model to study the development and understanding of the neuropathology, behavioural and electroencephalographic alterations of human temporal lobe epilepsy. It has been suggested a relationship between SE(More)
The cause of sleep is a complex question, which needs first, a clear distinction amongst the different meanings of a causal relationship in the study of a given behavior, second, the requisites to be met by a suggested cause, and third, a precise definition of sleep to distinguish behavioral from polygraphic sleep. This review aims at clarifying the meaning(More)
Rest in poikilothermic animals is an adaptation of the organism to adjust to the geophysical cycles, a doubtless valuable function for all animals. In this review, we argue that the function of sleep could be trivial for mammals and birds because sleep does not provide additional advantages over simple rest. This conclusion can be reached by using the null(More)
It has been suggested that theta rhythm gates the flow of information between the hippocampus and cortex during memory processes. The cholinergic system plays an important role in regulating vigilance states and in generating theta rhythm. This study aims to analyse the effects of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (120 and 360 microg, i.c.v.) on(More)
Cholinergic and gabaergic systems play an important role generating electroencephalographic activity and regulating vigilance states. Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist commonly used to induce seizures and an epilepticus-like state in rodents. A relationship between status epilepticus and reactive oxygen species has been also suggested which could result(More)