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T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and coreceptor ligation is thought to initiate signal transduction by inducing activation of the kinase Lck. Here we showed that catalytically active Lck was present in unstimulated naive T cells and thymocytes and was readily detectable in these cells in lymphoid organs. In naive T cells up to approximately 40% of total Lck(More)
The chemokine system coordinates leukocyte migration in immunity and inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Although several successful strategies have been identified to develop drugs targeting chemokines and their receptors, this has not yet resulted in many new therapeutics. This is likely due to a complexity of the(More)
UNLABELLED Acute renal failure (ARF), recently renamed acute kidney injury (AKI), is a relatively frequent problem, occurring in approximately 20% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Although serum creatinine may underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis, measures to diagnose and treat AKI should be made in patients in whom serum(More)
Evidence has accumulated over the past few years to suggest that specialized plasma membrane regions enriched in cholesterol and glycolipids, called 'lipid rafts', are primarily involved in the initiation and propagation of the signal transduction cascade associated with lymphocyte activation. Considering the multitude of recent and often contradictory(More)
1998). While these studies represent a clear step forward in defining the requirements for aggregation in initiating TCR signaling, they still leave several open questions. The first model does not explain how a few complexes (say, less than 10) per APC might rapidly trigger T cells, while the second does not account for CD8-independent Switzerland(More)
T regulatory (Treg) cells play a role in the suppression of immune responses, thus serving to induce tolerance and control autoimmunity. Here, we explored whether Treg cells influence the immediate hypersensitivity response of mast cells (MCs). Treg cells directly inhibited the FcvarepsilonRI-dependent MC degranulation through cell-cell contact involving(More)
Functional polarization of leukocytes is a requisite to accomplish immune function. Immune synapse formation or chemotaxis requires asymmetric redistribution of membrane receptors, signaling molecules and the actin cytoskeleton. There is increasing evidence that compartmentalization of the plasma membrane into distinct lipid microdomains is pivotal in(More)
Immunotherapy may provide valid alternative therapy for patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. However, if the tumor environment exerts a suppressive action on antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), immunotherapy will achieve little, if any, success. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of TIL responses by the(More)
The question of whether enhanced memory T cell responses are simply due to an increased frequency of specific cells or also to an improved response at the single cell level is widely debated. In this study, we analyzed T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic memory T cells and bona fide memory T cells isolated from virally infected normal mice using the tetramer(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection requires envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120-induced clustering of CD4 and coreceptors (CCR5 or CXCR4) on the cell surface; this enables Env gp41 activation and formation of a complex that mediates fusion between Env-containing and target-cell membranes. Kinetic studies show that viral receptors are actively(More)