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Natural polyamines, i.e., putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are ubiquitous molecules essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, the effect of polyamines on primary cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), and a human melanoma cell line was examined. While in the(More)
We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT) and other cAMP-elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 on human resting T lymphocytes. In this study, we evaluated the function of these cells. We found that purified human CD4(+) T lymphocytes pretreated with CT were able to inhibit proliferation of autologous PBMC in a(More)
The development of mucosal vaccines for prevention of infectious diseases caused by pathogens entering through the mucosal surfaces is an important and challenging objective. To this purpose, we evaluated the efficacy and durability of immune response induced by sublingual immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT) as an antigen in the presence of mucosal(More)
The CTLA-4 (CD152) molecule is up-regulated upon T cell activation and proliferation, and plays a critical role in the inhibition of immune responses. We show in this study that cAMP induces up-regulation of CD152 in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. This effect occurs in the absence of the up-regulation of CD69 and CD25 activation markers and T cell(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Tat protein induces protection in non-human primates upon systemic vaccination. In view of the design of mucosal vaccines against HIV-1 we studied the immune response to native Tat (aa 1-86) in mice following intranasal delivery of the protein with two mucosal adjuvants, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and(More)
The efficacy of vaccines can be greatly improved by adjuvants that enhance and modify the magnitude and the duration of the immune response. Several approaches to design rational adjuvants are based on the suppression of regulatory T-cell (Treg) function. Here, we evaluated whether removal or addition of Treg at the time of vaccination with tetanus toxoid(More)
B lymphocytes play an important role in the immune response induced by mucosal adjuvants. In this study we investigated the in vitro antigen-presenting cell (APC) properties of human B cells upon treatment with cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and nontoxic counterparts of these toxins, such as the B subunit of CT (CT-B)(More)
In this study, we test the hypothesis that cAMP, acting as an extracellular mediator, affects the physiology and function of human myeloid cells. The cAMP is a second messenger recognized as a universal regulator of several cellular functions in different organisms. Many studies have shown that extracellular cAMP exerts regulatory functions, acting as first(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent mucosal adjuvant. When administered through the mucosal route CT amplifies B and T lymphocyte responses to co-administered antigens. Since the discovery of CT as a mucosal adjuvant, other bacterial enterotoxins have been found to have this property. These molecules or their detoxified derivatives are all important for the(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent adjuvant for mucosal vaccination; however, its mechanism of action has not been clarified completely. It is well established that peripheral monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) both in vitro and in vivo and that monocytes are the in vivo precursors of mucosal CD103(-) proinflammatory DCs. In this study, we asked(More)