Antonella Castagna

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Understanding why some people establish and maintain effective control of HIV-1 and others do not is a priority in the effort to develop new treatments for HIV/AIDS. Using a whole-genome association strategy, we identified polymorphisms that explain nearly 15% of the variation among individuals in viral load during the asymptomatic set-point period of(More)
To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We provide overwhelming confirmation of three associations(More)
The response of both specific (ascorbate peroxidase, APX) and unspecific (POD) peroxidases and H(2)O(2) content of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Hor) grown hydroponically with (C) or without (-Fe) iron in the nutrient solution were analysed to verify whether iron deficiency led to cell oxidative status. In -Fe leaves a significant increase of(More)
The present study was carried out to compare the effect of NaCl on growth, cell membrane damage, and antioxidant defences in the halophyte Crithmum maritimum L. (sea fennel). Physiological and biochemical changes were investigated under control (0 mM NaCl) and saline conditions (100 and 300 mM NaCl). Biomass and growth of roots were more sensitive to NaCl(More)
Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.) tolerates high concentrations of heavy metals and is a promising species for the purpose of phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) from metal-contaminated soils. This work investigates the extent to which antioxidant and metal sequestering mechanisms are responsible for this tolerance. To this end, seedlings of Indian(More)
Plants react to O(3) threat by setting up a variety of defensive strategies involving the co-ordinated modulation of stress perception, signalling and metabolic responses. Although stomata largely controls O(3) uptake, differences in O(3) tolerance cannot always be ascribed to changes in stomatal conductance but cell protective and repair processes should(More)
Most of the studies carried out on Fe deficiency condition in arboreous plants have been performed, with the exception of those carried out on plants grown in the field, in hydroponic culture utilizing a total iron depletion growth condition. This can cause great stress to plants. By introducing Fe deficiency induced by the presence of bicarbonate, we found(More)
The methylation and transsulfuration pathways are intimately linked and have been implicated in the progression of neurologic damage and immune cell depletion caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We studied the following metabolites related to these pathways: S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), homocysteine, cysteine, cysteinyl-glycine, and(More)
OBJECTIVE : Evaluate HIV-1 subtype B integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir (RAL)-based savage regimens by clonal analysis of the replicating viral quasispecies. DESIGN : Seven triple class failure HIV-1 (subtype B)-infected patients, followed at San Raffaele Hospital and enrolled in the RAL Expanded Access Program (MK0518-023), were(More)
OBJECTIVES To understand the dynamic viral evolution observed during failure on raltegravir-containing regimens, we studied the genotypic and phenotypic patterns of resistance to raltegravir and the residual replication capacity (rRC) of HIV-1 variants selected in vivo. METHODS Clonal genotypic analyses were performed on sequential HIV-1 integrase(More)